This thesis will examine British Attitudes towards opium between 1857 to 1906 to analyse how they impacted policies of the Government of India. The research is presented thematically and draws upon numerous sources both from archives in Britain and the National Archives of India. The dominance of anti-opium and pro-opium positions have been the current focus of the literature rather than the complex middle ground where attitudes struggled to both condone or condemn the use of opium. Overall this will examine five main areas from high level state decisions, opium production, smuggling activities, the role of the Princely States, religious and missionary attitudes and finally medical attitudes. What this analysis will show is that there was no single objective or agenda that was driving British opium policy or ideas about the drug. Policies on opium operated at different levels and similarly they did not always relate to one another. They were affected by multiple ideas, local politics and subject to shifts and contradictions.
|Date of Award||12 Sep 2018|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Sponsors||AHRC (Arts and Humanities Research Council) & University of Strathclyde|
|Supervisor||James Mills (Supervisor) & Patricia Barton (Supervisor)|