The actual offshore wind farms are mainly located near the shore, only tens of kilometres offshore. The development of this sector is forecasting offshore wind farms over deeper seas. This fact is complicating and increasing the cost of a wind resource monitoring campaign by meteorological masts. Hence, the industry has been searching for cheaper technologies capable to measure wind vectors on deep seas, such as floating LIDAR or satellites.The European project NORSEWInD created wind atlases from satellite measurements for the North, Irish and Baltic Seas. After that project, the creation of software to undertake wind resource assessments by satellites was aimed by a new project named WindRes. This aim was the starting point of the present thesis.New software was created which merges knowledge from different fields, microwave remote sensing, satellite Earth Observation and wind resource assessment. The capabilities of the tool, and more important, the capabilities of satellites to match requirements by the wind industry were tested. In this initial analysis, advantages and disadvantages were identified as well as lack of knowledge. Two main points were concluded to need further research; the vertical extrapolation of wind vectors, and the creation of climatology from satellites measurements.In a second analysis, different extrapolation methods suggested in the literature were tested. These include methods to calculate aerodynamic surface roughness length (z0) and friction velocity, (u*). The logarithmic law, the law to calculate wind speed in the surface layer at different heights, is dependent on these two parameters, z0 and u*. Since previous methodologies were found to mismatch in situ measurements, a new expression for z0 was developed.New equations were reached by application of knowledge in oceanography and boundary layer meteorology. Although a definitive expression was not reached, the high z0 values found under young waves conditions suggested the need of a complete logarithmic law for offshore environments. Results pointed the necessity to include the energy transfer from wind to the sea into the logarithmic law.
|Date of Award||1 Nov 2017|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Sponsors||Technology Strategy Board TSB & University of Strathclyde|
|Supervisor||Matthew Stickland (Supervisor) & William Dempster (Supervisor)|