The aim of this research was to contribute towards energy efficiency in the shipping industry through improved operational practices that reduce fuel consumption, hence exhaust emissions and the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. This is in line with meeting global emission reduction targets and the mitigation of Climate Change. A critical review is presented that was undertaken to understand Climate Change as a driver towards energy efficiency within the maritime industry. The regulations are reviewed along with existing operational practices and the enablers and barriers towards improvements. Several field studies that were undertaken to further examine current practices and barriers are described, including a questionnaire identifying the opinions and perceptions of seafarers. Based on conclusions from the review and field studies, a Framework for improving the energy efficiency of ship operations is presented. The proposed Framework identifies that for practical solutions in the industry, human factors must be addressed in parallel with technical advances. The following features of the Framework to enable improvements are identified to be: a) Ship Operational Performance Monitoring for performance feedback distribution and supporting operational strategic decisions and b) updates to existing Operating Procedures. However, it is proposed that these features cannot be achieved on a wide scale without first the development of the following elements: a) Maritime Education and Training on energy efficiency; b) Analysis of ship Operational Profiles; c) A Ship Operational Performance Prediction (SOPP) Model. These three elements were developed and are described in this thesis. The developments described in this thesis were enabled by the collection of operational datasets (namely Ship Reports, also commonly known as Noon Reports) and information for 21 case study ships; including tanker, container and bulk carrier ships.The collection of this data was enabled by field study visits. Regarding the development of Maritime Education and Training on energy efficiency, three course curriculums are proposed. The training material developed for the Energy Resource Management course is then described. The results from the analysis of Operating Profiles for the 21 case study ships are presented. Typical operating practices are identified along with the opportunities for energy efficiency improvements. The Ship Operational Performance Prediction Model was developed using the Ship Report dataset for a case study tanker ship. The model predicts the ship's main engine brake power and fuel consumption with adequate accuracy and allows for assessment of the impacts due to different operating conditions. Specifically, a function to account for time dependent performance changes is developed so that the hull and propeller surface degradation and fouling are taken into consideration. Finally, the utilisation of the developed elements within the proposed Framework to improve energy efficiency is discussed, so that the importance of methods utilising Ship Report operational datasets becomes evident.
|Date of Award||1 Jul 2013|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Sponsors||EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council)|
|Supervisor||Osman Turan (Supervisor) & Gerasimos Theotokatos (Supervisor)|