In-situ optical techniques offer one of the most attractive options for measuring species concentration and spatial distribution profiles in reacting environments, such as flames. The generally non-intrusive nature and spatial resolution of these techniques are now preferred over on extractive sampling, followed by analysis using techniques such as gas chromatography. In this thesis two laser absorption measurement techniques are applied to measure the soot distribution, and acetylene concentration profiles in a flat-flame burner. The in-situ measurement of the distribution of particulate matter in flames is a key step in understanding the mechanism of its formation. Most in-situ measurement systems for this purpose are based on laser induced incandescence where particles are heated using high power laser sources and the increased incandescence emission of the soot particles is detected. However as the soot cools by heat transfer to the surrounding gas, following laser heating, the pressure of the gas is increased creating an acoustic effect. Photoacoustic detection has been applied to quantify low concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air but there have been few applications of photoacoustic detection to the in-situ measurement of particulate matter formation in combustion processes. A novel simple approach using a modulated continuous wave diode laser is presented in this thesis. The measurements taken using this new technique are compared to measurements of the visible emission from the flame, and previous soot distribution measurements using laser induced incandescence. Absorption spectroscopy using near-infrared tunable diode lasers has been applied to measure species in several harsh environments such as aero-engine exhaust plumes, flames, and other industrial processes.Simple single pass absorption techniques are not always suitable for this purpose due to the low absorption of the target species, either due to low concentration or weak absorption line-strength at high temperatures. One method to increase the sensitivity of such techniques is by using cavity enhanced methods which increase the effective path length of the laser through the absorbing medium. One such cavity enhanced method is Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). CRDS uses a cavity constructed of highly reflecting mirrors, laser light is then coupled into this cavity and absorption measurements can be evaluated from the decay rate of light from the cavity. The design and, novel application of continuous wave CRDS to measure the concentration profile of acetylene in the flat-flame burner is presented. Difficulties in deriving an absolute acetylene concentration from the measured ringdown times were encountered due to the large number of interfering features. Serveral fitting and extraction techniques are applied and compared to attempt to overcome these difficulties.
|Date of Award||1 Apr 2016|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Sponsors||EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) & University of Strathclyde|
|Supervisor||Michael Lengden (Supervisor) & Iain Burns (Supervisor)|