Background & Aims: There is on-going and growing concern regarding acute and chronic human health effects associated with exposure to combustion-related air pollutants. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of novel methods for assessing exposure to combustion-related air pollutants [particulate matter (PM),black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)] in indoor and outdoor environments.Methods: The methods that were developed and evaluated included: mass and darkness/colour analysis of airborne particle samples; passive samplers; portable real time monitors; and GC-MS analysis of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs). These methods were used to measure PM, BC and NO₂ in indoor offices and outdoor streets in Glasgow city centre, and an industrial hydraulic fracturing test site in Poland.Results: Detailed evaluation and calibration of novel methods for darkness measurement of low mass particulate material specimens collected on filters were completed to allow subsequent application in BC exposure estimation. Similarly,detailed evaluation allowed the refinement of procedures for field calibration of portable real-time monitors for BC, NO₂ and O₃. Indoor concentrations of PM, BC and NO₂ measured using the calibrated monitoring instruments were influenced by outdoor sources through natural ventilation and the proximity of buildings to urban roadsides.Outdoor measurements at 2 heights indicated that children are likely to experience higher exposures to combustion-related air pollutants from vehicle emissions. Marked elevations of BC and NO₂ concentrations were observed in downwind proximity to industrial fracking equipment sources, where average BC and NO₂ concentrations (11.2 & 111.3 μg/m³) were 2 to 3 times higher than average BC and NO₂ exposures experienced while walking in Glasgow city centre (3.7 & 42.3 μg/m³).Conclusions: Novel exposure science and environmental engineering approaches were developed to allow improved characterisation of short-term to medium-term personal and environmental exposures to combustion-related air pollutants in a wide range of occupational and environmental settings.Keywords: Combustion-related air pollutants; PM; BC; NO₂, novel methods.
|Date of Award||7 Apr 2017|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Supervisor||Iain Beverland (Supervisor) & Robert Kalin (Supervisor)|