This doctoral dissertation deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of state-of-the-art Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) for non-linear applications. Silicon PICs is a technology mainly used for application in telecommunications and quantum optics. The strong third order non-linearity of silicon makes it also attractive for non-linear PIC design. In FWM applications, SOI technology can be used not only for non-linear generation but also to fabricate photonic filters to remove the residual pump. This thesis deals with three requirements for the realisation of on-chip FWM optical devices, the dual polarisation rejection of the pump on-chip and the integration and stabilisation of the FWM source and optical filter. In this work two of the most used SOI photonic integrated filters, ring resonators and Bragg gratings, are presented. These devices present two different solutions for high extinction(≈ 60 dB) dual polarisation filtering. An integrated structure of non-linear source and filter is presented. The device used for non-linear generation is then monolithically integrated with a novel ring resonators cascade filter technology. FWM experiments were carried out obtaining an on chip pump high dual polarisation extinction of 62 dB with a low insertion loss for the propagating signal and idler of only 1.8 dB.The realisation of a microprocessor feedback loop stabilisation system integrated with SOI non-linear structures is also demonstrated. The system is based on a local thermal heater element on-chip used to stabilise the PICs against thermal refractive index variations. Using this method, a silicon π-phase shifted grating with a cavity Q-factor of 40k is demonstrated to operate over an ambient temperature detuning range of 40 oC and injection wavelength range of 1.5 nm, nearly 3 orders of magnitude greater than the resonant cavity line width.The last part of this work is dedicated to the description of a custom made laser photolitography system for rapid prototyping of PIC designs, a tool designed to overcome the costs of the typical lithography systems and drastically decrease the time required for multiple micro-fabrications. The hardware and the software created for this tool are presented together with the first results on the fabrication of SU-8 Photoresist (SU − 8) on Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) waveguides, bends, Mach Zehnder interferometers and ring resonators.
|Date of Award||1 Jan 2017|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Sponsors||EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council)|
|Supervisor||Michael Strain (Supervisor) & Jennifer Hastie (Supervisor)|