Although spray drying has been common place in the pharmaceutical industry for decades, the integration of the technique into continuous manufacturing can offer an extensive array of particle engineering applications. Continuous manufacturing aims to deliver consistent and sustainable drug products of a better and higher quality. Spray drying is a continuous processing technique typically adopted for amorphous solid production. However, the unique conditions of the technique can also can be adapted and applied to crystallisation enabling particle property engineering. The semi-continuous lab-scale Büchi B-290 Mini spray dryer is widely available and has been previously studied extensively for particle engineering and as a development platform for applications including pulmonary drug delivery, sustained release formulations and amorphous solid dispersions.The focus of this work is to engineer and enhance particle properties through the use of the Büchi spray dryer. Particle formation has been investigated, with specific focus in terms of polymorph formation in carbamazepine, to develop a predictive model for crystallisability and for co-spray drying of metformin hydrochloride with mannitol and lactose. Particle formation has been described in terms of theoretical drying kinetics and combined with off line characterisation to determine size and form of product. The metastable polymorph, form IV, of carbamazepine was made reproducibly by spray drying with the combination of rapid evaporation and product isolation shown to be crucial to prevention of solution mediated transformation. The application of non-invasive Raman spectroscopy was also utilised to assess product form.A crystallisability predictive model based on a Random Forest method was successfully produced through combining molecular descriptors with published and experimental outcomes. The model provided up to 79 % accuracy in predicting whether an amorphous or crystalline product would be expected from rapid drying. This shows considerable utility in streamlining process development. Finally, co-spray drying in the Büchi system using a three-fluid nozzle was used to produce multicomponent composite particles comprising of two crystallite phases. The effect of process configuration and material properties on the resultant particles was assessed using particle sizing, SEM, XRPD and Raman mapping. The results were compared on the basis of theoretical drying kinetics to assess the ability to predict the resultant particle morphology. Four multicomponent composite particles were produced by co-spray drying from metformin hydrochloride (MF), mannitol and lactose. MF-mannitol composites produced three-phase physical mixtures with both components present on the particle surfaces. The particle surface compositions were contradictory to the expected particle outcomes from the drying parameters. MF-lactose composite particle also produce three-phase physical mixtures with a relatively equal distribution of components present on particle surface. This is consistent with the expected particle from the drying parameters. The different particle outcomes suggest that co-spray drying of miscible multicomponent feeds using the three-fluid nozzle is highly dependent on the drying parameters for each component due to equal mixing of the feed at atomisation of droplets.
|Date of Award||1 Mar 2017|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Sponsors||EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council)|
|Supervisor||Alastair Florence (Supervisor) & Jan Sefcik (Supervisor)|