X-ray free-electron lasers

Brian W J McNeil, Neil R Thompson

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

662 Citations (Scopus)


With intensities 10(8)-10(10) times greater than other laboratory sources, X-ray free-electron lasers are currently opening up new frontiers across many areas of science. In this Review we describe how these unconventional lasers work, discuss the range of new sources being developed worldwide, and consider how such X-ray sources may develop over the coming years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)814-821
Number of pages8
JournalNature Photonics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2010


  • transverse magnetic-field
  • high-gain
  • synchrotron-radiation
  • stimulated-emission
  • relativistic electrons
  • fel amplifier
  • rare-gases
  • amplification
  • generation
  • operation


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