Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC)

Qiteng Hong, Kevin Kawal, Subhadeep Paladhi, Guangxiao Zhang, Campbell Booth, Vladimir Terzija

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Electrical power systems worldwide are experiencing unprecedented changes due to the rapidly increasing renewables to meet ambitious global decarbonization targets. Renewable resources are typically intermittent in nature and connected to the power grid via power electronics converters rather than conventional synchronous generators. Therefore, massive integration of renewables will lead to dramatic changes in the power system dynamic behavior with significantly increased levels of uncertainty and complexity. This presents the need for enhanced real-time and system-wide visibility of the system in order to more effectively monitor, and thus respond to contingency events in a timely and effective manner. Synchronized measurements, typically using data from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), provide a promising solution for such enhanced monitoring, protection and control capabilities to address the renewable integration challenges. This article will present the fundamentals of Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) systems for power grids, which are based on synchronized measurements. The article will cover the general architecture of the WAMPAC systems, the associated international standards, measurement devices/enabling technologies, and their typical applications. Future trends on the development of WAMPAC systems will also be discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Electrical and Electronic Power Engineering
EditorsJorge García
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 29 Nov 2022


  • phasor measurement unit (PMU)
  • power system protection
  • power system monitoring
  • power system control
  • real time measurement
  • synchronised measurement


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