Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with web holes subjected to interior-one-flange loading condition - part II: parametric study and proposed design equations

Ying Lian, Asraf Uzzaman, James B.P. Lim, Gasser Abdelal, David Nash, Ben Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A parametric study of cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under interior-one-flange (IOF) loading condition is undertaken, using finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes and cross-sections sizes. The holes are located either centred beneath the bearing plate or with a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plate. It was demonstrated that the main factors influencing the web crippling strength are the ratio of the hole depth to the depth of the web, the ratio of the length of bearing plate to the flat depth of the web and the location of the holes as defined by the distance of the hole from the edge of the bearing plate divided by the flat depth of the web. In this study, design recommendations in the form of web crippling strength reduction factor equations are proposed, which are conservative when compare with both the experimental and finite element results.
LanguageEnglish
Pages92–106
Number of pages15
JournalThin-Walled Structures
Volume114
Early online date7 Feb 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2017

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Bearings (structural)
Flanges
Steel
Finite element method

Keywords

  • cold-formed steel
  • web crippling
  • finite element analysis
  • web hole
  • channel section
  • reduction factor
  • design recommendations

Cite this

@article{49de921b836748e0aededcd1872ff129,
title = "Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with web holes subjected to interior-one-flange loading condition - part II: parametric study and proposed design equations",
abstract = "A parametric study of cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under interior-one-flange (IOF) loading condition is undertaken, using finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes and cross-sections sizes. The holes are located either centred beneath the bearing plate or with a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plate. It was demonstrated that the main factors influencing the web crippling strength are the ratio of the hole depth to the depth of the web, the ratio of the length of bearing plate to the flat depth of the web and the location of the holes as defined by the distance of the hole from the edge of the bearing plate divided by the flat depth of the web. In this study, design recommendations in the form of web crippling strength reduction factor equations are proposed, which are conservative when compare with both the experimental and finite element results.",
keywords = "cold-formed steel, web crippling, finite element analysis, web hole, channel section, reduction factor, design recommendations",
author = "Ying Lian and Asraf Uzzaman and Lim, {James B.P.} and Gasser Abdelal and David Nash and Ben Young",
note = "[1] NAS, North American specification for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, American Iron and Steel Institute, AISI S100-2007, AISI Standard, 2007. [2] W.W. Yu, C.S. Davis, Cold-formed steel members with perforated elements, Journal of the Structural Division, 99 (1973) 2061-2077. [3] R.A. LaBoube, R.Schuster, Standard test method for determining the web crippling strength of cold-formed steel members, American Iron and Steel Institute, 2002. [4] R.A. LaBoube, W.W. Yu, S.U. Deshmukh, C.A. Uphoff, Crippling capacity of web elements with openings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 125 (1999) 137-141. [5] K.S. Sivakumaran, K.M. Zielonka, Web crippling strength of thin-walled steel members with web opening, Thin-Walled Structures, 8 (1989) 295-319. [6] F. Zhou, B. Young, Web crippling of aluminium tubes with perforated webs, Engineering Structures, 32 (2010) 1397-1410. [7] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with offset web holes subjected to interior-two-flange loading, Thin-Walled Structures, 50 (2012) 76-86. [8] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Effect of offset web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-two-flange loading condition, Thin-Walled Structures, 65 (2013) 34-48. [9] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions-part I: Tests and finite element analysis, Thin-Walled Structures, 56 (2012) 38-48. [10] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions-part II: Parametric study and proposed design equations, Thin-Walled Structures, 56 (2012) 79-87. [11] P. Natario, N. Silvestre, D. Camotim, Computational modelling of flange crushing in cold-formed steel sections, Thin-Walled Structures, 84 (2014) 393-405. [12] P. Keerthan, M. Mahendran, E. Steau, Experimental study of web crippling behaviour of hollow flange channel beams under two flange load cases, Thin-Walled Structures, 85 (2014) 207-219. [13] Y. Chen, XX. Chen, CY. Wang, Experimental and finite element analysis research on cold-formed steel lipped channel beams under web crippling, Thin-walled Structures, 87 (2015) 41-52. [14] Y. Chen, XX. Chen, CY. Wang, Aluminum tubular sections subjected to web crippling, Thin-Walled Structures, 90 (2015) 49-60. [15] Y. Lian, A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, G. Abdelal, D. Nash, B. Young, Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with web holes subjected to interior-one-flange loading condition - Part I: Experimental and numerical investigation, Submitted to Thin-walled Structures. [16] ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual-Version 6.13-1. ABAQUS Inc., USA, 2013. [17] BS5950, Structural use of steelwork in buildings, Part 5 Code of practice for the design of cold-formed sections. British Standards Institution, London, 1998. [18] Eurocode-3, Design of steel structures: Part 1.3: General rules — Supplementary rules for cold-formed thin gauge members and sheeting, in: ENV 1993-1-3, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1996. [19] J. B. P. Lim, D. A. Nethercot, Ultimate strength of bolted moment-connections between cold-formed steel members. Thin Walled Structures, 41 (2001) 1019-1039. [20] ASCE, Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, in American Society of Civil Engineers Standard, New York, 2005. [21] B. Beshara, R. M. Schuster, Web crippling data and calibrations of cold formed steel members, University of Waterloo, Canada, 2000.",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1016/j.tws.2016.10.018",
language = "English",
volume = "114",
pages = "92–106",
journal = "Thin-Walled Structures",
issn = "0263-8231",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with web holes subjected to interior-one-flange loading condition - part II

T2 - Thin-Walled Structures

AU - Lian, Ying

AU - Uzzaman, Asraf

AU - Lim, James B.P.

AU - Abdelal, Gasser

AU - Nash, David

AU - Young, Ben

N1 - [1] NAS, North American specification for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, American Iron and Steel Institute, AISI S100-2007, AISI Standard, 2007. [2] W.W. Yu, C.S. Davis, Cold-formed steel members with perforated elements, Journal of the Structural Division, 99 (1973) 2061-2077. [3] R.A. LaBoube, R.Schuster, Standard test method for determining the web crippling strength of cold-formed steel members, American Iron and Steel Institute, 2002. [4] R.A. LaBoube, W.W. Yu, S.U. Deshmukh, C.A. Uphoff, Crippling capacity of web elements with openings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 125 (1999) 137-141. [5] K.S. Sivakumaran, K.M. Zielonka, Web crippling strength of thin-walled steel members with web opening, Thin-Walled Structures, 8 (1989) 295-319. [6] F. Zhou, B. Young, Web crippling of aluminium tubes with perforated webs, Engineering Structures, 32 (2010) 1397-1410. [7] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with offset web holes subjected to interior-two-flange loading, Thin-Walled Structures, 50 (2012) 76-86. [8] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Effect of offset web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-two-flange loading condition, Thin-Walled Structures, 65 (2013) 34-48. [9] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions-part I: Tests and finite element analysis, Thin-Walled Structures, 56 (2012) 38-48. [10] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions-part II: Parametric study and proposed design equations, Thin-Walled Structures, 56 (2012) 79-87. [11] P. Natario, N. Silvestre, D. Camotim, Computational modelling of flange crushing in cold-formed steel sections, Thin-Walled Structures, 84 (2014) 393-405. [12] P. Keerthan, M. Mahendran, E. Steau, Experimental study of web crippling behaviour of hollow flange channel beams under two flange load cases, Thin-Walled Structures, 85 (2014) 207-219. [13] Y. Chen, XX. Chen, CY. Wang, Experimental and finite element analysis research on cold-formed steel lipped channel beams under web crippling, Thin-walled Structures, 87 (2015) 41-52. [14] Y. Chen, XX. Chen, CY. Wang, Aluminum tubular sections subjected to web crippling, Thin-Walled Structures, 90 (2015) 49-60. [15] Y. Lian, A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, G. Abdelal, D. Nash, B. Young, Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with web holes subjected to interior-one-flange loading condition - Part I: Experimental and numerical investigation, Submitted to Thin-walled Structures. [16] ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual-Version 6.13-1. ABAQUS Inc., USA, 2013. [17] BS5950, Structural use of steelwork in buildings, Part 5 Code of practice for the design of cold-formed sections. British Standards Institution, London, 1998. [18] Eurocode-3, Design of steel structures: Part 1.3: General rules — Supplementary rules for cold-formed thin gauge members and sheeting, in: ENV 1993-1-3, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1996. [19] J. B. P. Lim, D. A. Nethercot, Ultimate strength of bolted moment-connections between cold-formed steel members. Thin Walled Structures, 41 (2001) 1019-1039. [20] ASCE, Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, in American Society of Civil Engineers Standard, New York, 2005. [21] B. Beshara, R. M. Schuster, Web crippling data and calibrations of cold formed steel members, University of Waterloo, Canada, 2000.

PY - 2017/5/31

Y1 - 2017/5/31

N2 - A parametric study of cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under interior-one-flange (IOF) loading condition is undertaken, using finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes and cross-sections sizes. The holes are located either centred beneath the bearing plate or with a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plate. It was demonstrated that the main factors influencing the web crippling strength are the ratio of the hole depth to the depth of the web, the ratio of the length of bearing plate to the flat depth of the web and the location of the holes as defined by the distance of the hole from the edge of the bearing plate divided by the flat depth of the web. In this study, design recommendations in the form of web crippling strength reduction factor equations are proposed, which are conservative when compare with both the experimental and finite element results.

AB - A parametric study of cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under interior-one-flange (IOF) loading condition is undertaken, using finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes and cross-sections sizes. The holes are located either centred beneath the bearing plate or with a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plate. It was demonstrated that the main factors influencing the web crippling strength are the ratio of the hole depth to the depth of the web, the ratio of the length of bearing plate to the flat depth of the web and the location of the holes as defined by the distance of the hole from the edge of the bearing plate divided by the flat depth of the web. In this study, design recommendations in the form of web crippling strength reduction factor equations are proposed, which are conservative when compare with both the experimental and finite element results.

KW - cold-formed steel

KW - web crippling

KW - finite element analysis

KW - web hole

KW - channel section

KW - reduction factor

KW - design recommendations

UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263823116305031

U2 - 10.1016/j.tws.2016.10.018

DO - 10.1016/j.tws.2016.10.018

M3 - Article

VL - 114

SP - 92

EP - 106

JO - Thin-Walled Structures

JF - Thin-Walled Structures

SN - 0263-8231

ER -