Wealth, household heterogeneity and livelihood diversification of Fulani pastoralists in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, northern Nigeria, during a period of social transition

Marie J. Ducrotoy, Crawford W. Revie, Alexandra P. M. Shaw, Usman B. Musa, Wilson J. Bertu, Amahyel M. Gusi, Reuben A. Ocholi, Ayodele O. Majekodunmi, Susan C. Welburn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A mixed methods study was undertaken in the Kachia Grazing Reserve of northern Nigeria. Surveys in March, June and October 2011 included focus group discussions, key informant and in-depth household interviews, concerning livelihood practices, animal health, ownership, and productivity. In May 2011, 249 Fulani families fleeing post-election violence entered the reserve with their livestock, increasing the number of households by one third.

RESULTS: Despite being settled within a grazing reserve, over half of households sent all their cattle away on seasonal transhumance and another third sent some away. Cattle accounted for 96% of total tropical livestock units (TLU), of which 26% were cattle kept permanently outside the reserve. While all households cited livestock as their main source of income, 90% grew crops and 55% derived income from off-farm activities. A multiple correspondence analysis showed that for each extra member of a household its TLU value increased by 2.0 [95% CI, 1.4-2.7], while for each additional marriage its TLU increased by 15.7 [95% CI, 7.1-24.3]. A strong association was also observed between small herds, small households with only one wife, alongside marked geographical wealth differences within the reserve. New immigrant families had larger household sizes (33) and livestock holdings (122 TLU) than old settlers (22 people and 67 TLU). Prior to the mass immigration, the distribution of TLU per person was unimodal: 41% of households were classified as 'poor' and 27% as 'medium', whereas post-immigration it was bi-modal, with 26% classified as 'very poor' and 28% as 'medium'.

CONCLUSIONS: While cattle remain the principal source of Fulani income and wealth, the inhabitants of Kachia Grazing Reserve have diversified their livelihood strategies to respond to changing circumstances and stress, especially the limited availability of grazing within the reserve and political insecurity outside, resulting in continued transhumance, the maintenance of smaller livestock holdings and pushing households into poverty.

LanguageEnglish
Article numbere0172866
Number of pages22
JournalPLOS One
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 2017

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Livestock
Nigeria
livelihood
Farms
households
livestock
grazing
transhumance
immigration
cattle
Emigration and Immigration
income and wealth
income
violence
marriage
Ownership
focus groups
ownership
Poverty
poverty

Keywords

  • Nigeria
  • cattle
  • animal health
  • Kachia Grazing Reserve
  • livestock

Cite this

Ducrotoy, Marie J. ; Revie, Crawford W. ; Shaw, Alexandra P. M. ; Musa, Usman B. ; Bertu, Wilson J. ; Gusi, Amahyel M. ; Ocholi, Reuben A. ; Majekodunmi, Ayodele O. ; Welburn, Susan C. / Wealth, household heterogeneity and livelihood diversification of Fulani pastoralists in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, northern Nigeria, during a period of social transition. In: PLOS One. 2017 ; Vol. 12, No. 3.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: A mixed methods study was undertaken in the Kachia Grazing Reserve of northern Nigeria. Surveys in March, June and October 2011 included focus group discussions, key informant and in-depth household interviews, concerning livelihood practices, animal health, ownership, and productivity. In May 2011, 249 Fulani families fleeing post-election violence entered the reserve with their livestock, increasing the number of households by one third.RESULTS: Despite being settled within a grazing reserve, over half of households sent all their cattle away on seasonal transhumance and another third sent some away. Cattle accounted for 96{\%} of total tropical livestock units (TLU), of which 26{\%} were cattle kept permanently outside the reserve. While all households cited livestock as their main source of income, 90{\%} grew crops and 55{\%} derived income from off-farm activities. A multiple correspondence analysis showed that for each extra member of a household its TLU value increased by 2.0 [95{\%} CI, 1.4-2.7], while for each additional marriage its TLU increased by 15.7 [95{\%} CI, 7.1-24.3]. A strong association was also observed between small herds, small households with only one wife, alongside marked geographical wealth differences within the reserve. New immigrant families had larger household sizes (33) and livestock holdings (122 TLU) than old settlers (22 people and 67 TLU). Prior to the mass immigration, the distribution of TLU per person was unimodal: 41{\%} of households were classified as 'poor' and 27{\%} as 'medium', whereas post-immigration it was bi-modal, with 26{\%} classified as 'very poor' and 28{\%} as 'medium'.CONCLUSIONS: While cattle remain the principal source of Fulani income and wealth, the inhabitants of Kachia Grazing Reserve have diversified their livelihood strategies to respond to changing circumstances and stress, especially the limited availability of grazing within the reserve and political insecurity outside, resulting in continued transhumance, the maintenance of smaller livestock holdings and pushing households into poverty.",
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Wealth, household heterogeneity and livelihood diversification of Fulani pastoralists in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, northern Nigeria, during a period of social transition. / Ducrotoy, Marie J.; Revie, Crawford W.; Shaw, Alexandra P. M.; Musa, Usman B.; Bertu, Wilson J.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Majekodunmi, Ayodele O.; Welburn, Susan C.

In: PLOS One, Vol. 12, No. 3, e0172866, 03.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Wealth, household heterogeneity and livelihood diversification of Fulani pastoralists in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, northern Nigeria, during a period of social transition

AU - Ducrotoy, Marie J.

AU - Revie, Crawford W.

AU - Shaw, Alexandra P. M.

AU - Musa, Usman B.

AU - Bertu, Wilson J.

AU - Gusi, Amahyel M.

AU - Ocholi, Reuben A.

AU - Majekodunmi, Ayodele O.

AU - Welburn, Susan C.

PY - 2017/3/3

Y1 - 2017/3/3

N2 - BACKGROUND: A mixed methods study was undertaken in the Kachia Grazing Reserve of northern Nigeria. Surveys in March, June and October 2011 included focus group discussions, key informant and in-depth household interviews, concerning livelihood practices, animal health, ownership, and productivity. In May 2011, 249 Fulani families fleeing post-election violence entered the reserve with their livestock, increasing the number of households by one third.RESULTS: Despite being settled within a grazing reserve, over half of households sent all their cattle away on seasonal transhumance and another third sent some away. Cattle accounted for 96% of total tropical livestock units (TLU), of which 26% were cattle kept permanently outside the reserve. While all households cited livestock as their main source of income, 90% grew crops and 55% derived income from off-farm activities. A multiple correspondence analysis showed that for each extra member of a household its TLU value increased by 2.0 [95% CI, 1.4-2.7], while for each additional marriage its TLU increased by 15.7 [95% CI, 7.1-24.3]. A strong association was also observed between small herds, small households with only one wife, alongside marked geographical wealth differences within the reserve. New immigrant families had larger household sizes (33) and livestock holdings (122 TLU) than old settlers (22 people and 67 TLU). Prior to the mass immigration, the distribution of TLU per person was unimodal: 41% of households were classified as 'poor' and 27% as 'medium', whereas post-immigration it was bi-modal, with 26% classified as 'very poor' and 28% as 'medium'.CONCLUSIONS: While cattle remain the principal source of Fulani income and wealth, the inhabitants of Kachia Grazing Reserve have diversified their livelihood strategies to respond to changing circumstances and stress, especially the limited availability of grazing within the reserve and political insecurity outside, resulting in continued transhumance, the maintenance of smaller livestock holdings and pushing households into poverty.

AB - BACKGROUND: A mixed methods study was undertaken in the Kachia Grazing Reserve of northern Nigeria. Surveys in March, June and October 2011 included focus group discussions, key informant and in-depth household interviews, concerning livelihood practices, animal health, ownership, and productivity. In May 2011, 249 Fulani families fleeing post-election violence entered the reserve with their livestock, increasing the number of households by one third.RESULTS: Despite being settled within a grazing reserve, over half of households sent all their cattle away on seasonal transhumance and another third sent some away. Cattle accounted for 96% of total tropical livestock units (TLU), of which 26% were cattle kept permanently outside the reserve. While all households cited livestock as their main source of income, 90% grew crops and 55% derived income from off-farm activities. A multiple correspondence analysis showed that for each extra member of a household its TLU value increased by 2.0 [95% CI, 1.4-2.7], while for each additional marriage its TLU increased by 15.7 [95% CI, 7.1-24.3]. A strong association was also observed between small herds, small households with only one wife, alongside marked geographical wealth differences within the reserve. New immigrant families had larger household sizes (33) and livestock holdings (122 TLU) than old settlers (22 people and 67 TLU). Prior to the mass immigration, the distribution of TLU per person was unimodal: 41% of households were classified as 'poor' and 27% as 'medium', whereas post-immigration it was bi-modal, with 26% classified as 'very poor' and 28% as 'medium'.CONCLUSIONS: While cattle remain the principal source of Fulani income and wealth, the inhabitants of Kachia Grazing Reserve have diversified their livelihood strategies to respond to changing circumstances and stress, especially the limited availability of grazing within the reserve and political insecurity outside, resulting in continued transhumance, the maintenance of smaller livestock holdings and pushing households into poverty.

KW - Nigeria

KW - cattle

KW - animal health

KW - Kachia Grazing Reserve

KW - livestock

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0172866

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0172866

M3 - Article

VL - 12

JO - PLOS One

T2 - PLOS One

JF - PLOS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 3

M1 - e0172866

ER -