Waveform similarity-based robust pilot protection for transmission lines

Guangxiao Zhang, Xiaoyang Tong, Qiteng Hong, Campbell David Booth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


This paper proposes a robust pilot protection scheme based on waveform similarity that restricts the influence of outliers in fault line identification. By comparing two refactoring currents constructed using the time-domain sampling values of currents at the two terminals of a transmission line, a waveform similarity algorithm called the Kendall's Tau coefficient (KTC) is employed to distinguish two different datasets of a protected transmission line. A reliable fault identification is realized under different fault types, distances, and resistances. Proposed criteria that are robust against to current transformer saturation, synchronization error, and noise are proposed. The KTC is based on simply the rank order instead of the metric value and thus limits outliers to a moderate level, ensuring protection safety in cases where outliers that cannot be eliminated completely are included in the current waveforms. The simulation results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed robust pilot protection scheme.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Early online date26 Jul 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Jul 2021


  • similarity comparison
  • Kendall’s Tau coefficient (KTC)
  • outliers
  • cyber Security
  • pilot protection


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