Video-rate fluorescence lifetime imaging camera with CMOS single-photon avalanche diode arrays and high-speed imaging algorithm

David D.-U. Li, Jochen Arlt, David Tyndall, Richard Walker, Justin Richardson, David Stoppa, Edoardo Charbon, Robert K. Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)
35 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

A high-speed and hardware-only algorithm using a center of mass method has been proposed for single-detector fluorescence lifetime sensing applications. This algorithm is now implemented on a field programmable gate array to provide fast lifetime estimates from a 32 × 32 low dark count 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) plus time-to-digital converter array. A simple look-up table is included to enhance the lifetime resolvability range and photon economics, making it comparable to the commonly used least-square method and maximum-likelihood estimation based software. To demonstrate its performance, a widefield microscope was adapted to accommodate the SPAD array and image different test samples. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on fluorescent beads in Rhodamine 6G at a frame rate of 50 fps is also shown.
Original languageEnglish
Article number096012
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Volume16
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2011

Keywords

  • fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
  • time-resolved imaging
  • photon counting
  • complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor
  • single-photon avalanche diode
  • center-of-mass
  • centre-of-mass

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