Verification of the geographical origin of European butters using PTR-MS

Melina Macatelli, Wies Akkermans, Alex Koot, Manuela Buchgraber, A. Paterson, Saskia Van Ruth

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26 Citations (Scopus)


In the present study, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in combination with partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was evaluated as a method for the prediction of the origin of European butters. Eighty-three commercial butters from three European regions were subjected to headspace analysis using PTR-MS. Data were collected for the mass range m/z 20-150 using a dwell time of 0.2 s mass−1, resulting in a cycle time just under 30 s. The log transformed headspace concentrations of the masses were subjected to PLS-DA in order to estimate classification models for the butter samples. One model predicted the region of origin; a second set of models predicted dichotomously whether or not a butter originated from a particular EU country. The performance of each model was evaluated by means of a 10-fold double cross validation procedure. For 76% of the butters the region of origin was predicted correctly in the cross validation. The success rate of the countries, averaged over all dichotomous models, was 88% but large differences between countries were observed. Additional work is required to study the underlying factors that determine the geographical differences in butter volatile compositions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-175
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Food Composition and Analysis
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009


  • butter
  • european butter
  • geographic origin determination of food
  • classification
  • direct mass spectrometry
  • headspace analysis
  • proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry
  • PTR-MS
  • partial least square-discriminant analysis
  • PLS-DA
  • volatile compounds
  • food composition
  • food analysis


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