Utilisation of an electrochemiluminescence sensor for atropine determination in complex matrices

Kelly Brown, Moira McMenemy, Matthew Palmer, Matthew J. Baker, David W. Robinson, Pamela Allan, Lynn Dennany

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


A major challenge within forensic science is the development of accurate and robust methodologies that can be utilized on-site for detection at crime scenes and can be used for analyzing multiple sample types. The recent expansion of electrochemical sensors to tackle this hurdle requires sensors that can undergo analysis without any pretreatment. Given the vast array of samples that are submitted for forensic analysis, this can pose a major challenge for all electrochemical sensors, including electrochemiluminescent (ECL)-based sensors. Within this contribution, we demonstrate the capacity for an ECL-based sensor to address this challenge and it is potential to detect and quantify atropine from a wide range of samples directly from herbal material to spiked solutions. This portable platform demonstrates satisfactory analytical parameters with linearity across a concentration range of 0.75 to 100 μM, reproducibility of 3.0%, repeatability of 9.2%, and a detection limit of ∼0.75 μM. The sensor displays good selectivity toward alkaloid species and, in particular, the hallucinogenic tropane alkaloid functionality within complex matrices. This portable sensor provides rapid detection alongside low cost and operational simplicity, thus, providing a basis for the exploitation of ECL-based sensors within the forensic arena.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12369-12376
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number19
Early online date22 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • electrochemical sensors
  • electrochemiluminescent based sensors
  • ECL
  • portable platform


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