Using coded excitation to maintain signal to noise for FMC+TFM on attenuating materials

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Abstract

Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evaluation using Full Matrix Capture (FMC) and Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used for high resolution imaging as every pixel is in optimal focus. FMC excites one element in turn, so operates with lower transmitted energy compared to phased array beamforming. The energy at a reflector is further reduced by the broad directivity pattern of the single element. The large number of Tx/Rx A-scans that contribute to each pixel recover the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in the final TFM image. Maintaining this in the presence of attenuating materials is a challenge because relevant information in each Ascan signal is buried in the thermal noise, and the TFM process assumes no quantization effects in the Analogue-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in each receiver. In-process inspection during Additive Manufacturing (AM) requires ultrasonic array sensors that can tolerate high temperatures, scan over rough surfaces and leave no residue. Dry-coupled wheel probes are a solution, but the tire rubbers are often highly attenuating, causing a problem for FMC+TFM needed to adapt the focus through the rough surface. Common approaches to maintain the SNR are to drop the frequency or to average over multiple transmissions, but these compromise resolution and acquisition rate respectively. In this paper, the application of coded excitation to maintain the SNR in the presence of high signal attenuation is explored.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages4
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2019
Event2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium - Scottish Event Campus (SEC), Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 6 Oct 20199 Oct 2019
https://attend.ieee.org/ius-2019/

Conference

Conference2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium
Abbreviated titleIUS2019
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityGlasgow
Period6/10/199/10/19
Internet address

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Acoustic noise
Signal to noise ratio
3D printers
Ultrasonics
Pixels
Thermal noise
Optical resolving power
Sensor arrays
Digital to analog conversion
Beamforming
Tires
Wheels
Inspection
Imaging techniques
Temperature

Keywords

  • ultrasound
  • coded excitation
  • orthogonal Golay code
  • FMC
  • TFM
  • additive manufacturing

Cite this

@conference{c877b389fd0d48c6ba185c0004ec05d4,
title = "Using coded excitation to maintain signal to noise for FMC+TFM on attenuating materials",
abstract = "Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evaluation using Full Matrix Capture (FMC) and Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used for high resolution imaging as every pixel is in optimal focus. FMC excites one element in turn, so operates with lower transmitted energy compared to phased array beamforming. The energy at a reflector is further reduced by the broad directivity pattern of the single element. The large number of Tx/Rx A-scans that contribute to each pixel recover the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in the final TFM image. Maintaining this in the presence of attenuating materials is a challenge because relevant information in each Ascan signal is buried in the thermal noise, and the TFM process assumes no quantization effects in the Analogue-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in each receiver. In-process inspection during Additive Manufacturing (AM) requires ultrasonic array sensors that can tolerate high temperatures, scan over rough surfaces and leave no residue. Dry-coupled wheel probes are a solution, but the tire rubbers are often highly attenuating, causing a problem for FMC+TFM needed to adapt the focus through the rough surface. Common approaches to maintain the SNR are to drop the frequency or to average over multiple transmissions, but these compromise resolution and acquisition rate respectively. In this paper, the application of coded excitation to maintain the SNR in the presence of high signal attenuation is explored.",
keywords = "ultrasound, coded excitation, orthogonal Golay code, FMC, TFM, additive manufacturing",
author = "David Lines and Ehsan Mohseni and Yashar Javadi and Carmelo Mineo and {Wathavana Vithanage}, {Randika Kosala} and Zhen Qiu and MacLeod, {Charles Norman} and Gareth Pierce and Anthony Gachagan",
note = "{\circledC} 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting /republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.; 2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS2019 ; Conference date: 06-10-2019 Through 09-10-2019",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "6",
language = "English",
url = "https://attend.ieee.org/ius-2019/",

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T1 - Using coded excitation to maintain signal to noise for FMC+TFM on attenuating materials

AU - Lines, David

AU - Mohseni, Ehsan

AU - Javadi, Yashar

AU - Mineo, Carmelo

AU - Wathavana Vithanage, Randika Kosala

AU - Qiu, Zhen

AU - MacLeod, Charles Norman

AU - Pierce, Gareth

AU - Gachagan, Anthony

N1 - © 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting /republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

PY - 2019/10/6

Y1 - 2019/10/6

N2 - Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evaluation using Full Matrix Capture (FMC) and Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used for high resolution imaging as every pixel is in optimal focus. FMC excites one element in turn, so operates with lower transmitted energy compared to phased array beamforming. The energy at a reflector is further reduced by the broad directivity pattern of the single element. The large number of Tx/Rx A-scans that contribute to each pixel recover the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in the final TFM image. Maintaining this in the presence of attenuating materials is a challenge because relevant information in each Ascan signal is buried in the thermal noise, and the TFM process assumes no quantization effects in the Analogue-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in each receiver. In-process inspection during Additive Manufacturing (AM) requires ultrasonic array sensors that can tolerate high temperatures, scan over rough surfaces and leave no residue. Dry-coupled wheel probes are a solution, but the tire rubbers are often highly attenuating, causing a problem for FMC+TFM needed to adapt the focus through the rough surface. Common approaches to maintain the SNR are to drop the frequency or to average over multiple transmissions, but these compromise resolution and acquisition rate respectively. In this paper, the application of coded excitation to maintain the SNR in the presence of high signal attenuation is explored.

AB - Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evaluation using Full Matrix Capture (FMC) and Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used for high resolution imaging as every pixel is in optimal focus. FMC excites one element in turn, so operates with lower transmitted energy compared to phased array beamforming. The energy at a reflector is further reduced by the broad directivity pattern of the single element. The large number of Tx/Rx A-scans that contribute to each pixel recover the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in the final TFM image. Maintaining this in the presence of attenuating materials is a challenge because relevant information in each Ascan signal is buried in the thermal noise, and the TFM process assumes no quantization effects in the Analogue-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in each receiver. In-process inspection during Additive Manufacturing (AM) requires ultrasonic array sensors that can tolerate high temperatures, scan over rough surfaces and leave no residue. Dry-coupled wheel probes are a solution, but the tire rubbers are often highly attenuating, causing a problem for FMC+TFM needed to adapt the focus through the rough surface. Common approaches to maintain the SNR are to drop the frequency or to average over multiple transmissions, but these compromise resolution and acquisition rate respectively. In this paper, the application of coded excitation to maintain the SNR in the presence of high signal attenuation is explored.

KW - ultrasound

KW - coded excitation

KW - orthogonal Golay code

KW - FMC

KW - TFM

KW - additive manufacturing

M3 - Paper

ER -

Lines D, Mohseni E, Javadi Y, Mineo C, Wathavana Vithanage RK, Qiu Z et al. Using coded excitation to maintain signal to noise for FMC+TFM on attenuating materials. 2019. Paper presented at 2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, Glasgow, United Kingdom.