User and community co-production of public services: what does the evidence tell us?

Elke Loeffler, Tony Bovaird

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


Much of the current discussion of user and community co-production makes strong claims for its potential to improve outcomes. How much is actually known about the level, drivers, and potential effects of co-production? In this article, some of the key claims made for co-production are examined and an assessment is made of how they stack up against the empirical evidence. In particular, some areas are identified in which practice must be cautious about the potential contribution of co-production, and where further research is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1006-1019
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Public Administration
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 9 Nov 2016


  • co-producer characteristics
  • co-production drivers
  • community co-production
  • user co-production

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