Use of nanoparticles in delivery of nucleic acids for melanoma treatment

Mohammad A. Obeid, Alaa A. A. Aljabali, Meriem Rezigue, Haneen Amawi, Hanin Alyamani, Shatha N. Abdeljaber, Valerie A. Ferro

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Melanoma accounts for 4% of all skin cancer malignancies, with only 14% of diagnosed patients surviving for more than 5 years after diagnosis. Until now, there is no clear understanding of the detailed molecular contributors of melanoma pathogenesis. Accordingly, more research is needed to understand melanoma development and prognosis.
All the treatment approaches that are currently applied have several significant limitations that prevent effective use in melanoma. One major limitation in the treatment of cancer is the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR). The MDR results in significant treatment failure and poor clinical outcomes in several cancers, including skin cancer. Treatment of melanoma is especially retarded by MDR. Despite the current advances in targeted and immune-mediated therapy, treatment arms of melanoma are severely limited and stand as a significant clinical challenge. Further, the poor pharmacokinetic profile of currently used chemotherapeutic agents is another reason for treatment failure. Therefore, more research is needed to develop novel drugs and carrier tools for more effective and targeted treatment.
Nucleic acid therapy is based on nucleic acids or chemical compounds that are closely related, such as antisense oligonucleotides, aptamers, and small-interfering RNAs that are usually used in situations when a specific gene implicated in a disorder is deemed a therapeutically beneficial target for inhibition. However, the proper application for nucleic acid therapies is hampered by the development of an effective delivery system that can maintain their stability in the systemic circulation and enhance their uptake by the target cells. In this chapter, the prognosis of the different types of melanoma along with the currently used medications is highlighted, and the different types of nucleic acids along with the currently available nanoparticle systems for delivering these nucleic acids into melanoma cells are discussed. We also discuss recently conducted research on the use of different types of nanoparticles for nucleic acid delivery into melanoma cells and highlight the most significant outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMelanoma
EditorsK.M. Hargadon
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherHumana Press
Pages591-620
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9781071612057
ISBN (Print)9781071612040
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
Volume2265
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029

Keywords

  • melanoma
  • multidrug resistance
  • nanoparticles
  • nucleic acids
  • drug delivery

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