Use of adaptive optics for improved multiphoton imaging

J.M. Girkin, P.N. Marsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


We report on the integration of active optical elements in a multiphoton microscope to improve theresolution and overall image quality when imaging deeply into biological samples. Optical models were generated of sample systems and these have been compared with the performance of thecomplete imaging system. The active elements used were commercially available flexible membranemirrors controlled by custom, home written, software. Significant improvements in image qualityhave been demonstrated using a range of optimisation routines based on the analysis of the imagesproduced by the system, rather than with a wavefront sensor. A three-fold increase in the resolution100µm into the sample was achieved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • multiphoton imaging
  • adaptive optics
  • microscopy
  • deep tissue imaging
  • spherical-aberration
  • confocal microscopy
  • 2-photon microscope
  • compensation


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