Upconversion solar cell measurements under real sunlight

Stefan Fischer, Aruna Ivaturi, Peter Jakob, Karl W. Krämer, Rosa Martin-Rodriguez, Andries Meijerink, Bryce Richards, Jan Christoph Goldschmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The main losses in solar cells result from the incomplete utilization of the solar spectrum. Via the addition of an upconverting layer to the rear side of a solar cell, the otherwise-unused sub-bandgap photons can be utilized. In this paper, we demonstrate an efficiency enhancement of a silicon solar cell under real sunlight due to upconversion of sub-bandgap photons. Sunlight was concentrated geometrically with a lens with a factor of up to 50 suns onto upconverter silicon solar cell devices. The upconverter solar cell devices (UCSCDs) were also measured indoors using a solar simulator. To correct for differences in the spectral distribution between real sunlight and the solar simulator a spectral mismatch correction is required and is especially important to properly predict the performance when a non-linear response (e.g. upconversion) is involved. By applying a spectral mismatch correction, good agreement between the solar simulator measurements and the outdoor measurements using real sunlight was achieved. The method was tested on two different upconverter powders, β-NaYF4: 25% Er3+ and Gd2O2S: 10% Er3+, which were both embedded in a polymer. We determined additional photocurrents due to upconversion of 9.4 mA/cm2 with β-NaYF4 and 8.2 mA/cm2 with Gd2O2S under 94-suns concentration. Our results show i) the applicability of measurements using standard solar cell characterization equipment for predicting the performance of non-linear solar devices, and ii) underline the importance of applying proper mismatch corrections for accurate prediction of the performance of such non-linear devices.
LanguageEnglish
Pages389-395
Number of pages7
JournalOptical Materials
Volume84
Early online date19 Jul 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2018

Fingerprint

sunlight
Solar cells
solar cells
solar simulators
Simulators
Silicon solar cells
Energy gap
Photons
Photocurrents
Powders
Lenses
Polymers
solar spectra
photons
photocurrents
lenses
augmentation
polymers
predictions
gadolinium sulfoxylate

Keywords

  • upconversion
  • solar cells
  • NaYF4
  • Gd2O2S
  • Er
  • photovoltaics

Cite this

Fischer, S., Ivaturi, A., Jakob, P., Krämer, K. W., Martin-Rodriguez, R., Meijerink, A., ... Goldschmidt, J. C. (2018). Upconversion solar cell measurements under real sunlight. Optical Materials, 84, 389-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2018.05.072
Fischer, Stefan ; Ivaturi, Aruna ; Jakob, Peter ; Krämer, Karl W. ; Martin-Rodriguez, Rosa ; Meijerink, Andries ; Richards, Bryce ; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph. / Upconversion solar cell measurements under real sunlight. In: Optical Materials. 2018 ; Vol. 84. pp. 389-395.
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Fischer, S, Ivaturi, A, Jakob, P, Krämer, KW, Martin-Rodriguez, R, Meijerink, A, Richards, B & Goldschmidt, JC 2018, 'Upconversion solar cell measurements under real sunlight' Optical Materials, vol. 84, pp. 389-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2018.05.072

Upconversion solar cell measurements under real sunlight. / Fischer, Stefan; Ivaturi, Aruna; Jakob, Peter; Krämer, Karl W.; Martin-Rodriguez, Rosa; Meijerink, Andries; Richards, Bryce; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph.

In: Optical Materials, Vol. 84, 31.10.2018, p. 389-395.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Upconversion solar cell measurements under real sunlight

AU - Fischer, Stefan

AU - Ivaturi, Aruna

AU - Jakob, Peter

AU - Krämer, Karl W.

AU - Martin-Rodriguez, Rosa

AU - Meijerink, Andries

AU - Richards, Bryce

AU - Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph

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N2 - The main losses in solar cells result from the incomplete utilization of the solar spectrum. Via the addition of an upconverting layer to the rear side of a solar cell, the otherwise-unused sub-bandgap photons can be utilized. In this paper, we demonstrate an efficiency enhancement of a silicon solar cell under real sunlight due to upconversion of sub-bandgap photons. Sunlight was concentrated geometrically with a lens with a factor of up to 50 suns onto upconverter silicon solar cell devices. The upconverter solar cell devices (UCSCDs) were also measured indoors using a solar simulator. To correct for differences in the spectral distribution between real sunlight and the solar simulator a spectral mismatch correction is required and is especially important to properly predict the performance when a non-linear response (e.g. upconversion) is involved. By applying a spectral mismatch correction, good agreement between the solar simulator measurements and the outdoor measurements using real sunlight was achieved. The method was tested on two different upconverter powders, β-NaYF4: 25% Er3+ and Gd2O2S: 10% Er3+, which were both embedded in a polymer. We determined additional photocurrents due to upconversion of 9.4 mA/cm2 with β-NaYF4 and 8.2 mA/cm2 with Gd2O2S under 94-suns concentration. Our results show i) the applicability of measurements using standard solar cell characterization equipment for predicting the performance of non-linear solar devices, and ii) underline the importance of applying proper mismatch corrections for accurate prediction of the performance of such non-linear devices.

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KW - upconversion

KW - solar cells

KW - NaYF4

KW - Gd2O2S

KW - Er

KW - photovoltaics

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Fischer S, Ivaturi A, Jakob P, Krämer KW, Martin-Rodriguez R, Meijerink A et al. Upconversion solar cell measurements under real sunlight. Optical Materials. 2018 Oct 31;84:389-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2018.05.072