Uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue behaviour of wire arc additively manufactured ER70S-6 low carbon steel components

Anna Ermakova, Javad Razavi, Filippo Berto, Ali Mehmanparast

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), also known as directed energy deposition (DED) process, is an efficient additive manufacturing technology, offers high potential to rapidly fabricate large-scale parts with complex geometries layer-by-layer. However, the fundamental understanding of the fatigue behaviour of such parts and the material requirements need to be significantly improved at all levels before this unique technology can be implemented for critical applications. This work aims to investigate the fatigue behaviour of WAAM built ER70S-6 steel under uniaxial, torsion and multiaxial loading conditions. Specimens were extracted in two different orientations: vertical and horizontal, to explore if the orientation direction has any effect on the fatigue results. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to examine the fracture surface of broken specimens and identify crack initiation regions and fracture mechanisms. The obtained results were compared with the fatigue data available in the literature on common structural steels fabricated using conventional welding and WAAM technique, showing similar fatigue behaviour with wrought S355 specimens. Moreover, the uniaxial data set on ER70S-6 WAAM specimens was evaluated according to the DNV RP-C203 standard for continuous welds, demonstrating advantageous fatigue resistance in the examined material.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107283
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Fatigue
Early online date24 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2023


  • uniaxial
  • multiaxial
  • fatigue behaviour
  • wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM)
  • ER70S-6
  • low carbon steel components


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