Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile

A. B. Kristoffersen, E. E. Rees, H. Stryhn, R. Ibarra, J. L. Campisto, C. W. Revie, S. St-Hilaire

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The decline of fisheries over recent decades and a growing human population has coincided with an increase in aquaculture production. As farmed fish densities increase, so have their rates of infectious diseases, as predicted by the theory of density-dependent disease transmission. One of the pathogen that has increased with the growth of salmon farming is sea lice. Effective management of this pathogen requires an understanding of the spatial scale of transmission. We used a two-part multi-scale model to account for the zero-inflated data observed in weekly sea lice abundance levels on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, and to assess internal (farm) and external (regional) sources of sea lice infection. We observed that the level of juvenile sea lice was higher on farms that were closer to processing plants with fish holding facilities. Further, evidence for sea lice exposure from the surrounding area was supported by a strong positive correlation between the level of juvenile sea lice on a farm and the number of gravid females on neighboring farms within 30. km two weeks prior. The relationship between external sources of sea lice from neighboring farms and juvenile sea lice on a farm was one of the strongest detected in our multivariable model. Our findings suggest that the management of sea lice should be coordinated between farms and should include all farms and processing plants with holding facilities within a relatively large geographic area. Understanding the contribution of pathogens on a farm from different sources is an important step in developing effective control strategies.

LanguageEnglish
Pages165-175
Number of pages11
JournalPreventive Veterinary Medicine
Volume111
Issue number1-2
Early online date27 Apr 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2013

Fingerprint

Copepoda
Caligidae
Phthiraptera
Chile
Oceans and Seas
salmon
farms
pathogens
Fishes
Farms
Salmo salar
Fisheries
Aquaculture
farmed fish
Salmon
gravid females
Oncorhynchus mykiss
disease transmission
Agriculture
human population

Keywords

  • area management
  • density-dependent pathogen
  • salmon aquaculture
  • sea lice
  • two-part random effects model

Cite this

Kristoffersen, A. B., Rees, E. E., Stryhn, H., Ibarra, R., Campisto, J. L., Revie, C. W., & St-Hilaire, S. (2013). Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 111(1-2), 165-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.03.015
Kristoffersen, A. B. ; Rees, E. E. ; Stryhn, H. ; Ibarra, R. ; Campisto, J. L. ; Revie, C. W. ; St-Hilaire, S. / Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile. In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 111, No. 1-2. pp. 165-175.
@article{465f88b266a2421f85fe04f5c43d5b7e,
title = "Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile",
abstract = "The decline of fisheries over recent decades and a growing human population has coincided with an increase in aquaculture production. As farmed fish densities increase, so have their rates of infectious diseases, as predicted by the theory of density-dependent disease transmission. One of the pathogen that has increased with the growth of salmon farming is sea lice. Effective management of this pathogen requires an understanding of the spatial scale of transmission. We used a two-part multi-scale model to account for the zero-inflated data observed in weekly sea lice abundance levels on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, and to assess internal (farm) and external (regional) sources of sea lice infection. We observed that the level of juvenile sea lice was higher on farms that were closer to processing plants with fish holding facilities. Further, evidence for sea lice exposure from the surrounding area was supported by a strong positive correlation between the level of juvenile sea lice on a farm and the number of gravid females on neighboring farms within 30. km two weeks prior. The relationship between external sources of sea lice from neighboring farms and juvenile sea lice on a farm was one of the strongest detected in our multivariable model. Our findings suggest that the management of sea lice should be coordinated between farms and should include all farms and processing plants with holding facilities within a relatively large geographic area. Understanding the contribution of pathogens on a farm from different sources is an important step in developing effective control strategies.",
keywords = "area management, density-dependent pathogen, salmon aquaculture, sea lice, two-part random effects model",
author = "Kristoffersen, {A. B.} and Rees, {E. E.} and H. Stryhn and R. Ibarra and Campisto, {J. L.} and Revie, {C. W.} and S. St-Hilaire",
year = "2013",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.03.015",
language = "English",
volume = "111",
pages = "165--175",
journal = "Preventive Veterinary Medicine",
issn = "0167-5877",
number = "1-2",

}

Kristoffersen, AB, Rees, EE, Stryhn, H, Ibarra, R, Campisto, JL, Revie, CW & St-Hilaire, S 2013, 'Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile' Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 111, no. 1-2, pp. 165-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.03.015

Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile. / Kristoffersen, A. B.; Rees, E. E.; Stryhn, H.; Ibarra, R.; Campisto, J. L.; Revie, C. W.; St-Hilaire, S.

In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 111, No. 1-2, 01.08.2013, p. 165-175.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile

AU - Kristoffersen, A. B.

AU - Rees, E. E.

AU - Stryhn, H.

AU - Ibarra, R.

AU - Campisto, J. L.

AU - Revie, C. W.

AU - St-Hilaire, S.

PY - 2013/8/1

Y1 - 2013/8/1

N2 - The decline of fisheries over recent decades and a growing human population has coincided with an increase in aquaculture production. As farmed fish densities increase, so have their rates of infectious diseases, as predicted by the theory of density-dependent disease transmission. One of the pathogen that has increased with the growth of salmon farming is sea lice. Effective management of this pathogen requires an understanding of the spatial scale of transmission. We used a two-part multi-scale model to account for the zero-inflated data observed in weekly sea lice abundance levels on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, and to assess internal (farm) and external (regional) sources of sea lice infection. We observed that the level of juvenile sea lice was higher on farms that were closer to processing plants with fish holding facilities. Further, evidence for sea lice exposure from the surrounding area was supported by a strong positive correlation between the level of juvenile sea lice on a farm and the number of gravid females on neighboring farms within 30. km two weeks prior. The relationship between external sources of sea lice from neighboring farms and juvenile sea lice on a farm was one of the strongest detected in our multivariable model. Our findings suggest that the management of sea lice should be coordinated between farms and should include all farms and processing plants with holding facilities within a relatively large geographic area. Understanding the contribution of pathogens on a farm from different sources is an important step in developing effective control strategies.

AB - The decline of fisheries over recent decades and a growing human population has coincided with an increase in aquaculture production. As farmed fish densities increase, so have their rates of infectious diseases, as predicted by the theory of density-dependent disease transmission. One of the pathogen that has increased with the growth of salmon farming is sea lice. Effective management of this pathogen requires an understanding of the spatial scale of transmission. We used a two-part multi-scale model to account for the zero-inflated data observed in weekly sea lice abundance levels on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, and to assess internal (farm) and external (regional) sources of sea lice infection. We observed that the level of juvenile sea lice was higher on farms that were closer to processing plants with fish holding facilities. Further, evidence for sea lice exposure from the surrounding area was supported by a strong positive correlation between the level of juvenile sea lice on a farm and the number of gravid females on neighboring farms within 30. km two weeks prior. The relationship between external sources of sea lice from neighboring farms and juvenile sea lice on a farm was one of the strongest detected in our multivariable model. Our findings suggest that the management of sea lice should be coordinated between farms and should include all farms and processing plants with holding facilities within a relatively large geographic area. Understanding the contribution of pathogens on a farm from different sources is an important step in developing effective control strategies.

KW - area management

KW - density-dependent pathogen

KW - salmon aquaculture

KW - sea lice

KW - two-part random effects model

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84879007432&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.03.015

DO - 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.03.015

M3 - Article

VL - 111

SP - 165

EP - 175

JO - Preventive Veterinary Medicine

T2 - Preventive Veterinary Medicine

JF - Preventive Veterinary Medicine

SN - 0167-5877

IS - 1-2

ER -

Kristoffersen AB, Rees EE, Stryhn H, Ibarra R, Campisto JL, Revie CW et al. Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013 Aug 1;111(1-2):165-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.03.015