Ultrasonic phased array inspection of wire plus arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) samples using conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging approaches

Yashar Javadi, Charles Norman MacLeod, Stephen Pierce, Anthony Gachagan, William Kerr, Jialuo Ding, Stewart Williams, Momchil Vasilev, Riliang Su, Carmelo Mineo, Jerzy Dziewierz

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Abstract

In this study, three aluminium samples produced by wire + arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) are inspected using ultrasonic phased array technology. Artificial defects are ‎machined using a centre drill, ø3 mm, and electro-discharge machining (EDM), ø0.5-1 mm, ‎in a cylindrical through hole topology. The sample was first inspected by a single element ‎wheel probe mounted on a KUKA robot in order to investigate the feasibility of using a ‎conventional ultrasonic transducer approach. Unfortunately, the wheel probe was found to ‎be unsuitable for scanning of the WAAM specimens and ultrasonic phased arrays were ‎employed next. The setup included 5 MHz and 10 MHz arrays (128 elements) in direct ‎contact with the sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging techniques. Using FIToolbox (Diagnostic Sonar, UK) as the controller, a phased ‎array aperture of 32 elements was used to perform a focussed B-scan with a range of ‎settings for the transmit focal depth. All the reflectors (including those located near the ‎WAAM top surface) were successfully detected by a combination of conventional phased ‎array and TFM, using a range of settings and setups including bottom surface inspection, ‎application through a Plexiglas wedge and variation of the scanning frequency.‎
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sep 2018
Event57th The British Institue of Non-destructive Testing Annual Conference: NDT 2018 - East Midlands Conference Centre and Orchard Hotel, Nottingham, United Kingdom
Duration: 10 Sep 201812 Sep 2018
Conference number: 57
http://www.bindt.org/events/NDT-2018/

Conference

Conference57th The British Institue of Non-destructive Testing Annual Conference
Abbreviated title57th BINDT Annual Conference
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityNottingham
Period10/09/1812/09/18
Internet address

Keywords

  • wire + arc additive manufacture (WAAM)‎
  • ultrasonic phased array
  • total focusing method (TFM)‎
  • artificial defects
  • full matrix capture (FMC)‎

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  • Cite this

    Javadi, Y., MacLeod, C. N., Pierce, S., Gachagan, A., Kerr, W., Ding, J., Williams, S., Vasilev, M., Su, R., Mineo, C., & Dziewierz, J. (2018). Ultrasonic phased array inspection of wire plus arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) samples using conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging approaches. Paper presented at 57th The British Institue of Non-destructive Testing Annual Conference, Nottingham, United Kingdom.