Ultrasonic phased array inspection of wire plus arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) samples using conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging approaches

Yashar Javadi, Charles Norman MacLeod, Stephen Pierce, Anthony Gachagan, William Kerr, Jialuo Ding, Stewart Williams, Momchil Vasilev, Riliang Su, Carmelo Mineo, Jerzy Dziewierz

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study, three aluminium samples produced by wire + arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) are inspected using ultrasonic phased array technology. Artificial defects are ‎machined using a centre drill, ø3 mm, and electro-discharge machining (EDM), ø0.5-1 mm, ‎in a cylindrical through hole topology. The sample was first inspected by a single element ‎wheel probe mounted on a KUKA robot in order to investigate the feasibility of using a ‎conventional ultrasonic transducer approach. Unfortunately, the wheel probe was found to ‎be unsuitable for scanning of the WAAM specimens and ultrasonic phased arrays were ‎employed next. The setup included 5 MHz and 10 MHz arrays (128 elements) in direct ‎contact with the sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging techniques. Using FIToolbox (Diagnostic Sonar, UK) as the controller, a phased ‎array aperture of 32 elements was used to perform a focussed B-scan with a range of ‎settings for the transmit focal depth. All the reflectors (including those located near the ‎WAAM top surface) were successfully detected by a combination of conventional phased ‎array and TFM, using a range of settings and setups including bottom surface inspection, ‎application through a Plexiglas wedge and variation of the scanning frequency.‎

Conference

Conference57th The British Institue of Non-destructive Testing Annual Conference
Abbreviated title57th BINDT Annual Conference
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityNottingham
Period10/09/1812/09/18
Internet address

Fingerprint

Inspection
Ultrasonics
Wire
Imaging techniques
Wheels
Scanning
Electric discharge machining
Ultrasonic transducers
Sonar
Topology
Robots
Aluminum
Defects
Controllers

Keywords

  • wire + arc additive manufacture (WAAM)‎
  • ultrasonic phased array
  • total focusing method (TFM)‎
  • artificial defects
  • full matrix capture (FMC)‎

Cite this

Javadi, Y., MacLeod, C. N., Pierce, S., Gachagan, A., Kerr, W., Ding, J., ... Dziewierz, J. (2018). Ultrasonic phased array inspection of wire plus arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) samples using conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging approaches. Paper presented at 57th The British Institue of Non-destructive Testing Annual Conference, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
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title = "Ultrasonic phased array inspection of wire plus arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) samples using conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging approaches",
abstract = "In this study, three aluminium samples produced by wire + arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) are inspected using ultrasonic phased array technology. Artificial defects are ‎machined using a centre drill, {\o}3 mm, and electro-discharge machining (EDM), {\o}0.5-1 mm, ‎in a cylindrical through hole topology. The sample was first inspected by a single element ‎wheel probe mounted on a KUKA robot in order to investigate the feasibility of using a ‎conventional ultrasonic transducer approach. Unfortunately, the wheel probe was found to ‎be unsuitable for scanning of the WAAM specimens and ultrasonic phased arrays were ‎employed next. The setup included 5 MHz and 10 MHz arrays (128 elements) in direct ‎contact with the sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging techniques. Using FIToolbox (Diagnostic Sonar, UK) as the controller, a phased ‎array aperture of 32 elements was used to perform a focussed B-scan with a range of ‎settings for the transmit focal depth. All the reflectors (including those located near the ‎WAAM top surface) were successfully detected by a combination of conventional phased ‎array and TFM, using a range of settings and setups including bottom surface inspection, ‎application through a Plexiglas wedge and variation of the scanning frequency.‎",
keywords = "wire + arc additive manufacture (WAAM)‎, ultrasonic phased array, total focusing method (TFM)‎, artificial defects, full matrix capture (FMC)‎",
author = "Yashar Javadi and MacLeod, {Charles Norman} and Stephen Pierce and Anthony Gachagan and William Kerr and Jialuo Ding and Stewart Williams and Momchil Vasilev and Riliang Su and Carmelo Mineo and Jerzy Dziewierz",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "12",
language = "English",
note = "57th The British Institue of Non-destructive Testing Annual Conference : NDT 2018, 57th BINDT Annual Conference ; Conference date: 10-09-2018 Through 12-09-2018",
url = "http://www.bindt.org/events/NDT-2018/",

}

Javadi, Y, MacLeod, CN, Pierce, S, Gachagan, A, Kerr, W, Ding, J, Williams, S, Vasilev, M, Su, R, Mineo, C & Dziewierz, J 2018, 'Ultrasonic phased array inspection of wire plus arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) samples using conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging approaches' Paper presented at 57th The British Institue of Non-destructive Testing Annual Conference, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 10/09/18 - 12/09/18, .

Ultrasonic phased array inspection of wire plus arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) samples using conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging approaches. / Javadi, Yashar; MacLeod, Charles Norman; Pierce, Stephen; Gachagan, Anthony; Kerr, William; Ding, Jialuo; Williams, Stewart; Vasilev, Momchil; Su, Riliang; Mineo, Carmelo; Dziewierz, Jerzy.

2018. Paper presented at 57th The British Institue of Non-destructive Testing Annual Conference, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Ultrasonic phased array inspection of wire plus arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) samples using conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging approaches

AU - Javadi, Yashar

AU - MacLeod, Charles Norman

AU - Pierce, Stephen

AU - Gachagan, Anthony

AU - Kerr, William

AU - Ding, Jialuo

AU - Williams, Stewart

AU - Vasilev, Momchil

AU - Su, Riliang

AU - Mineo, Carmelo

AU - Dziewierz, Jerzy

PY - 2018/9/12

Y1 - 2018/9/12

N2 - In this study, three aluminium samples produced by wire + arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) are inspected using ultrasonic phased array technology. Artificial defects are ‎machined using a centre drill, ø3 mm, and electro-discharge machining (EDM), ø0.5-1 mm, ‎in a cylindrical through hole topology. The sample was first inspected by a single element ‎wheel probe mounted on a KUKA robot in order to investigate the feasibility of using a ‎conventional ultrasonic transducer approach. Unfortunately, the wheel probe was found to ‎be unsuitable for scanning of the WAAM specimens and ultrasonic phased arrays were ‎employed next. The setup included 5 MHz and 10 MHz arrays (128 elements) in direct ‎contact with the sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging techniques. Using FIToolbox (Diagnostic Sonar, UK) as the controller, a phased ‎array aperture of 32 elements was used to perform a focussed B-scan with a range of ‎settings for the transmit focal depth. All the reflectors (including those located near the ‎WAAM top surface) were successfully detected by a combination of conventional phased ‎array and TFM, using a range of settings and setups including bottom surface inspection, ‎application through a Plexiglas wedge and variation of the scanning frequency.‎

AB - In this study, three aluminium samples produced by wire + arc additive manufacture ‎‎(WAAM) are inspected using ultrasonic phased array technology. Artificial defects are ‎machined using a centre drill, ø3 mm, and electro-discharge machining (EDM), ø0.5-1 mm, ‎in a cylindrical through hole topology. The sample was first inspected by a single element ‎wheel probe mounted on a KUKA robot in order to investigate the feasibility of using a ‎conventional ultrasonic transducer approach. Unfortunately, the wheel probe was found to ‎be unsuitable for scanning of the WAAM specimens and ultrasonic phased arrays were ‎employed next. The setup included 5 MHz and 10 MHz arrays (128 elements) in direct ‎contact with the sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) ‎imaging techniques. Using FIToolbox (Diagnostic Sonar, UK) as the controller, a phased ‎array aperture of 32 elements was used to perform a focussed B-scan with a range of ‎settings for the transmit focal depth. All the reflectors (including those located near the ‎WAAM top surface) were successfully detected by a combination of conventional phased ‎array and TFM, using a range of settings and setups including bottom surface inspection, ‎application through a Plexiglas wedge and variation of the scanning frequency.‎

KW - wire + arc additive manufacture (WAAM)‎

KW - ultrasonic phased array

KW - total focusing method (TFM)‎

KW - artificial defects

KW - full matrix capture (FMC)‎

UR - http://www.bindt.org/events/PastEvents/ndt-2018/

M3 - Paper

ER -