Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields

R.C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S.P. Jamison, J.G. Gallacher, D. Clark, D.A. Jaroszynski

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39 Citations (Scopus)


The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with krypton clusters at intensity up to 1.3×1018 Wcm−2 has been investigated. Intense Kα and Kβ emission from krypton at 12.66 and 14.1 keV, respectively, has been observed using conventional solid state x-ray detectors. The measured x-ray spectra have broad bremsstrahlung continuum reaching to photon energies up to 45 keV, with evidence that approximately 10% of electrons that are heated to very high electron temperatures, which is consistent with a two-temperature electron distribution. This is ascribed to the presence of a hot electron population, similar to that found in laser-solid interactions. The highest laser energy to x-ray conversion efficiency observed is 9.2×10−7, which is equivalent to 45 nJ x-ray pulse energy from the 12.66 keV krypton Kα transition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3491-3496
Number of pages5
JournalPhysics of Plasmas
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2004


  • krypton
  • plasma production by laser
  • plasma heating by laser
  • atomic clusters
  • plasma diagnostics
  • bremsstrahlung
  • X-ray emission spectra
  • plasma temperature


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