Type II errors in IO multipliers

Tobias Emonts-Holley, Andrew Ross, John Swales

Research output: Working paper

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This paper compares methods for calculating Input-Output (IO) Type II multipliers. These are formulations of the standard Leontief IO model which endogenise elements of household consumption. An analytical comparison of the two basic IO Type II multiplier methods with the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) multiplier approach identifies the treatment of non-wage income generated in production as a central problem. The multiplier values for each of the IO and SAM methods are calculated using Scottish data for 2009. These results can be used to choose which Type II IO multiplier to adopt where SAM multiplier values are unavailable.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationUniversity of Strathclyde
Number of pages25
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015


  • input-output
  • social accounting matrix
  • multipliers
  • SAM
  • Scotland


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