Tri-CNN: a three branch model for hyperspectral image classification

Mohammed Q. Alkhatib, Mina Al-Saad, Nour Aburaed, Saeed Almansoori, Jaime Zabalza, Stephen Marshall, Hussain Al Ahmad

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Hyperspectral Image (HSI) classification methods that use Deep Learning (DL) have proven to be effective in the recent years. In particular, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have demonstrated extremely powerful performance in such tasks. However, The lack of training samples is one of the main contributors to low classification performance. Traditional CNN-based techniques under-utilize the inter-band correlations of HSI because they primarily use 2D-CNNs for feature extraction. Contrariwise, 3D-CNNs extract both spectral and spatial information using the same operation. While this overcomes the limitation of 2D-CNNs, it may lead to insufficient extraction of features. In order to overcome this issue, we propose an HSI classification approach named Tri-CNN which is based on a multi-scale 3D-CNN and three-branch feature fusion. We first extract HSI features using 3D-CNN at various scales. The three different features are then flattened and concatenated. To obtain the classification results, the fused features then traverse a number of fully connected layers and eventually a softmax layer. Experimental results are conducted on three datasets, Pavia University (PU), Salinas scene (SA) and GulfPort (GP) datasets, respectively. Classification results indicate that our proposed methodology shows remarkable performance in terms of the Overall Accuracy (OA), Average Accuracy (AA), and Kappa metrics when compared against existing methods.
Original languageEnglish
Article number316
Number of pages19
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2023


  • hyperspectral classification
  • convolutional neural networks
  • deep learning
  • feature fusion


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