Transporting the next generation of CO2 for carbon capture and storage: The impact of impurities on supercritical CO2 pipelines

P.N. Seevam, J.M. Race, M.J. Downie, P. Hopkins

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Climate change has been attributed to greenhouse gases with carbon dioxide (C02) being the major contributor. Most of these C02 emissions originate from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. power plants). Governments and industry worldwide are now proposing to capture C02 from their power plants and either store it in depleted reservoirs or saline aquifers ('Carbon Capture and Storage1 CCS) or use it for 'Enhanced Oil Recovery' (EOR) in depleting oil and gas fields. The capture of this anthropogenic (man made sources of C02) C02 will mitigate global warming and possibly reduce the impact of climate change. The United States has over 30 years experience with the transportation of carbon dioxide by pipeline mainly from naturally occurring relatively pure C02 sources for onshore EOR. CCS projects differ significantly from this past experience as they will be focusing on anthropogenic sources from major polluters such as fossil fuel power plants and the necessary C02 transport infrastructure will involve both long distance onshore and offshore pipelines. Also the fossil fuel power plants will produce C02 with varying combinations of impurities depending on the capture technology used. CO 2 pipelines have never been designed for these differing conditions; therefore CCS will introduce a new generation of C02 for transport. Application of current design procedures to the new generation pipelines is likely to yield an over-designed pipeline facility with excessive investment and operating cost. In particular the presence of impurities has a significant impact on the physical properties of the transported C02 which affects: pipeline design; compressor/pump power; repressurisationdistance; pipeline capacity. These impurities could also have implications in the fracture control of the pipeline. All these effects have direct implications for both the technical and economic feasibility of developing a carbon dioxide transport infrastructure onshore and offshore. This paper compares and contrasts the current experience of transporting C02 onshore with the proposed transport onshore and offshore for CCS. It covers studies on the effect of physical and transport properties (hydraulics) on key technical aspects of pipeline transportation and the implications for designing and operating a pipeline for C02 containing impurities. The studies reported in the paper have significant implications for future C02 transportation and highlight a number of knowledge gaps that will have to be filled to allow for the efficient and economic design of pipelines for this 'next' generation of anthropogenic C02.

Conference

Conference2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008
Abbreviated title IPC 2008
CountryCanada
CityCalgary, Alberta
Period29/09/083/10/08

Fingerprint

Carbon capture
Pipelines
Impurities
carbon
Fossil fuel power plants
power plant
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide
fossil fuel
Oils
carbon dioxide
enhanced oil recovery
Climate change
Physical properties
Offshore pipelines
infrastructure
Recovery
Economics
climate change
Global warming

Keywords

  • carbon capture and storage (CCS)
  • carbon dioxide
  • impurities
  • pipelines
  • transport
  • a-carbon
  • anthropogenic sources
  • carbon capture and storage
  • depleted reservoirs
  • design procedure
  • economic design
  • economic feasibilities
  • enhanced oil recovery
  • fracture control
  • knowledge gaps
  • long distances
  • naturally occurring
  • oil and gas fields
  • pipeline capacity
  • pipeline design
  • pipeline transportation
  • saline aquifers
  • significant impacts
  • super-critical
  • technical aspects
  • transport infrastructure
  • aquifers
  • enhanced recovery
  • fossil fuel power plants
  • fossil fuels
  • gas industry
  • global warming
  • greenhouse gases
  • hydrogeology
  • investments
  • oil fields
  • operating costs
  • petroleum reservoir evaluation
  • petroleum reservoirs
  • transport properties

Cite this

Seevam, P. N., Race, J. M., Downie, M. J., & Hopkins, P. (2009). Transporting the next generation of CO2 for carbon capture and storage: The impact of impurities on supercritical CO2 pipelines. 39-51. Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2008-64063
Seevam, P.N. ; Race, J.M. ; Downie, M.J. ; Hopkins, P. / Transporting the next generation of CO2 for carbon capture and storage: The impact of impurities on supercritical CO2 pipelines. Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.13 p.
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abstract = "Climate change has been attributed to greenhouse gases with carbon dioxide (C02) being the major contributor. Most of these C02 emissions originate from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. power plants). Governments and industry worldwide are now proposing to capture C02 from their power plants and either store it in depleted reservoirs or saline aquifers ('Carbon Capture and Storage1 CCS) or use it for 'Enhanced Oil Recovery' (EOR) in depleting oil and gas fields. The capture of this anthropogenic (man made sources of C02) C02 will mitigate global warming and possibly reduce the impact of climate change. The United States has over 30 years experience with the transportation of carbon dioxide by pipeline mainly from naturally occurring relatively pure C02 sources for onshore EOR. CCS projects differ significantly from this past experience as they will be focusing on anthropogenic sources from major polluters such as fossil fuel power plants and the necessary C02 transport infrastructure will involve both long distance onshore and offshore pipelines. Also the fossil fuel power plants will produce C02 with varying combinations of impurities depending on the capture technology used. CO 2 pipelines have never been designed for these differing conditions; therefore CCS will introduce a new generation of C02 for transport. Application of current design procedures to the new generation pipelines is likely to yield an over-designed pipeline facility with excessive investment and operating cost. In particular the presence of impurities has a significant impact on the physical properties of the transported C02 which affects: pipeline design; compressor/pump power; repressurisationdistance; pipeline capacity. These impurities could also have implications in the fracture control of the pipeline. All these effects have direct implications for both the technical and economic feasibility of developing a carbon dioxide transport infrastructure onshore and offshore. This paper compares and contrasts the current experience of transporting C02 onshore with the proposed transport onshore and offshore for CCS. It covers studies on the effect of physical and transport properties (hydraulics) on key technical aspects of pipeline transportation and the implications for designing and operating a pipeline for C02 containing impurities. The studies reported in the paper have significant implications for future C02 transportation and highlight a number of knowledge gaps that will have to be filled to allow for the efficient and economic design of pipelines for this 'next' generation of anthropogenic C02.",
keywords = "carbon capture and storage (CCS), carbon dioxide, impurities, pipelines, transport, a-carbon, anthropogenic sources, carbon capture and storage, depleted reservoirs, design procedure, economic design, economic feasibilities, enhanced oil recovery, fracture control, knowledge gaps, long distances, naturally occurring, oil and gas fields, pipeline capacity, pipeline design, pipeline transportation, saline aquifers, significant impacts, super-critical, technical aspects, transport infrastructure, aquifers, enhanced recovery, fossil fuel power plants, fossil fuels, gas industry, global warming, greenhouse gases, hydrogeology, investments, oil fields, operating costs, petroleum reservoir evaluation, petroleum reservoirs, transport properties",
author = "P.N. Seevam and J.M. Race and M.J. Downie and P. Hopkins",
note = "Stern, N., (2006) Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change, , HM Treasury Department UK; World Resource Institute 2008 Climate Analysis Indicator Tool (CAIT) Online Database Version 5.0Mohitpur, M., (2008) Energy Supply and Pipeline Transportation Challenges and Opportunities, , ASME publication USA Fig 5.10 and 5.11 Chapter 5; Furaival, S., (2006) Burying Climate Change for Good, , http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/25727, Physics World; Coleman, D.L., (2005) Development of Enhanced Oil Recovery: The U.S. Permian Basin Identifying the Incentives and Mechanisms Needed to Accelerate Global Carbon Sequestration Via EOR, , Westminster Energy Forum London; Gale, J., Davidson, J., Transmission of C0-safety and economic consideration (2004) J.Energy Progress, 6 (4), p. 219; Seevam, P.N., Race, J.M., Downie, M.J., Carbon Dioxide Pipelines for Sequestration in the UK-Engineering Gap Analysis (2007) Transmission of C02,H2 and Biogas: Exploring New Uses for Natural Gas Pipelines Conference Clarion Amsterdam, pp. 141-162; Race, J.M., Seevam, P.N., Downie, M.J., (2007) Challenges for Offshore Transport of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide, , 26th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE) San Diego California; West, J.M., (1974) Design and Operation of A Supercritical C02 Pipeline-Compression System SACROC Unit Scurry County Texas, , Society of Petroleum Engineers Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference Texas SPE Paper No.4804; Zhang, Z.X., Wang, G.X., Massarotto, P., Rudolph, V., (2006) Optimization of Pipeline Transport for CO2 Sequestration, 47 (6), p. 702. , Energy Conversion and Management; Farris, C., (1983) Unusual Design Factors for Supercritical C02 Pipeline, 3, pp. 150-158. , 3 September 1983 Energy Progress; Oosterkamp, T., Ramsen, J., (2008) State of the Art Review of C02 Pipeline Transportation with Relevance to Offshore Pipelines, , Report No. POL-0-2007-138-A Polytec No rway; Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2005 {"}IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage {"} Eds. Metz B. Davidson O de Coninck H.C. Loos M. and Meyer L. A. Cambridge University Press Cambridge United Kingdom and New York NY USAhttp://www.encapco2.org/index.htmwww.dynamis-hypogen.comBeggs, H.D., Brill, J.P., A Study of Two Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes (1973) J. Petroleum Technology, 25, pp. 607-617; Moody, L.F., Friction Factors for Pipe Flow (1944) Trans. ASME, 66, p. 671; Brill, J.P., Mukherjee, H., Multiphase Flow in Wells (1999) Society of Petroleum Engineers Monograph Richardson Texas, pp. 12-27; Hein, M.A., (1986) Pipeline Design Model Addresses C02 S Challenging Behaviour, pp. 71-75. , Oil and Gas Journal; Marsili, L., (1990) Reducing the Risk of Ductile Fracture on the Canyon Reef Carriers C0 2 Pipeline, , SPE Paper No.20646 65th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers New Orleans LA; (2002) KMP Annual Report Number 10-K405SEC, , Kinder Morgan Energy Partners L.P; King, G.G., Here are Key Design Considerations for C02 Pipelines (1982) Oil and Gas Journal, 80 (39), p. 219; McCollough, D.E., The Central Basin Pipeline: A C02 system in West Texas (1986) Energy Progress, 6 (4), pp. 230-234; Hein, M.A., (1985) Rigorous and Approximate Methods for C02 Pipeline Analysis in Facilities Pipelines and Measurements: A Workbook for Engineers, , 41st Petroleum Mechanical Engineering Workshop and Conference Kansas City MO USA; Li, H., Yan, J., (2006) Comparative Study of Equations of State for Predicting Phase Equilibrium and Volume Properties of C02 and C02 Mixtures, , Proceedings of the GHGT8-8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Trondheim Norway; Peng, D.Y., Robinson, D.B., A New Two-Constant Equation of State (1976) J. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, 15 (1), pp. 59-64; McCollum, D.L., Ogden, J.M., (2006) Techno-Economic Model for Carbon Dioxide Compression Transport and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity, , Report No. UCD-ITS-RR-06-14 Institute of Transportation Studies University of California; Hanne, M., Kvamsdal, T.M., (2005) Tjeldbergodden Power /Methanol-C02 Reduction Efforts. SP2: C02 Capture and Transport., p. 9. , SINTEF Energy Research Trondheim; Chen, X.T., Zhang, H.Q., Redus, C.L., Brill, J.P., Pressure Loss/Gain Boundary of Gas-Liquid Downward Flow in Inclined and Vertical Pipes (2000) J. Energy Resources Technology Transactions of the ASME, 122 (2), pp. 83-87; (2001) Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on the Limitation of Emissions of Certain Pollutants into the Air from Large Combustion Plants, , http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/airquality/eu-int/eu-directives/lcpd/ index.htm; 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, IPC 2008 ; Conference date: 29-09-2008 Through 03-10-2008",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1115/IPC2008-64063",
language = "English",
pages = "39--51",

}

Seevam, PN, Race, JM, Downie, MJ & Hopkins, P 2009, 'Transporting the next generation of CO2 for carbon capture and storage: The impact of impurities on supercritical CO2 pipelines' Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 29/09/08 - 3/10/08, pp. 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2008-64063

Transporting the next generation of CO2 for carbon capture and storage: The impact of impurities on supercritical CO2 pipelines. / Seevam, P.N.; Race, J.M.; Downie, M.J.; Hopkins, P.

2009. 39-51 Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Transporting the next generation of CO2 for carbon capture and storage: The impact of impurities on supercritical CO2 pipelines

AU - Seevam, P.N.

AU - Race, J.M.

AU - Downie, M.J.

AU - Hopkins, P.

N1 - Stern, N., (2006) Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change, , HM Treasury Department UK; World Resource Institute 2008 Climate Analysis Indicator Tool (CAIT) Online Database Version 5.0Mohitpur, M., (2008) Energy Supply and Pipeline Transportation Challenges and Opportunities, , ASME publication USA Fig 5.10 and 5.11 Chapter 5; Furaival, S., (2006) Burying Climate Change for Good, , http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/25727, Physics World; Coleman, D.L., (2005) Development of Enhanced Oil Recovery: The U.S. Permian Basin Identifying the Incentives and Mechanisms Needed to Accelerate Global Carbon Sequestration Via EOR, , Westminster Energy Forum London; Gale, J., Davidson, J., Transmission of C0-safety and economic consideration (2004) J.Energy Progress, 6 (4), p. 219; Seevam, P.N., Race, J.M., Downie, M.J., Carbon Dioxide Pipelines for Sequestration in the UK-Engineering Gap Analysis (2007) Transmission of C02,H2 and Biogas: Exploring New Uses for Natural Gas Pipelines Conference Clarion Amsterdam, pp. 141-162; Race, J.M., Seevam, P.N., Downie, M.J., (2007) Challenges for Offshore Transport of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide, , 26th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE) San Diego California; West, J.M., (1974) Design and Operation of A Supercritical C02 Pipeline-Compression System SACROC Unit Scurry County Texas, , Society of Petroleum Engineers Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference Texas SPE Paper No.4804; Zhang, Z.X., Wang, G.X., Massarotto, P., Rudolph, V., (2006) Optimization of Pipeline Transport for CO2 Sequestration, 47 (6), p. 702. , Energy Conversion and Management; Farris, C., (1983) Unusual Design Factors for Supercritical C02 Pipeline, 3, pp. 150-158. , 3 September 1983 Energy Progress; Oosterkamp, T., Ramsen, J., (2008) State of the Art Review of C02 Pipeline Transportation with Relevance to Offshore Pipelines, , Report No. POL-0-2007-138-A Polytec No rway; Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2005 "IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage " Eds. Metz B. Davidson O de Coninck H.C. Loos M. and Meyer L. A. Cambridge University Press Cambridge United Kingdom and New York NY USAhttp://www.encapco2.org/index.htmwww.dynamis-hypogen.comBeggs, H.D., Brill, J.P., A Study of Two Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes (1973) J. Petroleum Technology, 25, pp. 607-617; Moody, L.F., Friction Factors for Pipe Flow (1944) Trans. ASME, 66, p. 671; Brill, J.P., Mukherjee, H., Multiphase Flow in Wells (1999) Society of Petroleum Engineers Monograph Richardson Texas, pp. 12-27; Hein, M.A., (1986) Pipeline Design Model Addresses C02 S Challenging Behaviour, pp. 71-75. , Oil and Gas Journal; Marsili, L., (1990) Reducing the Risk of Ductile Fracture on the Canyon Reef Carriers C0 2 Pipeline, , SPE Paper No.20646 65th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers New Orleans LA; (2002) KMP Annual Report Number 10-K405SEC, , Kinder Morgan Energy Partners L.P; King, G.G., Here are Key Design Considerations for C02 Pipelines (1982) Oil and Gas Journal, 80 (39), p. 219; McCollough, D.E., The Central Basin Pipeline: A C02 system in West Texas (1986) Energy Progress, 6 (4), pp. 230-234; Hein, M.A., (1985) Rigorous and Approximate Methods for C02 Pipeline Analysis in Facilities Pipelines and Measurements: A Workbook for Engineers, , 41st Petroleum Mechanical Engineering Workshop and Conference Kansas City MO USA; Li, H., Yan, J., (2006) Comparative Study of Equations of State for Predicting Phase Equilibrium and Volume Properties of C02 and C02 Mixtures, , Proceedings of the GHGT8-8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Trondheim Norway; Peng, D.Y., Robinson, D.B., A New Two-Constant Equation of State (1976) J. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, 15 (1), pp. 59-64; McCollum, D.L., Ogden, J.M., (2006) Techno-Economic Model for Carbon Dioxide Compression Transport and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity, , Report No. UCD-ITS-RR-06-14 Institute of Transportation Studies University of California; Hanne, M., Kvamsdal, T.M., (2005) Tjeldbergodden Power /Methanol-C02 Reduction Efforts. SP2: C02 Capture and Transport., p. 9. , SINTEF Energy Research Trondheim; Chen, X.T., Zhang, H.Q., Redus, C.L., Brill, J.P., Pressure Loss/Gain Boundary of Gas-Liquid Downward Flow in Inclined and Vertical Pipes (2000) J. Energy Resources Technology Transactions of the ASME, 122 (2), pp. 83-87; (2001) Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on the Limitation of Emissions of Certain Pollutants into the Air from Large Combustion Plants, , http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/airquality/eu-int/eu-directives/lcpd/ index.htm

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Climate change has been attributed to greenhouse gases with carbon dioxide (C02) being the major contributor. Most of these C02 emissions originate from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. power plants). Governments and industry worldwide are now proposing to capture C02 from their power plants and either store it in depleted reservoirs or saline aquifers ('Carbon Capture and Storage1 CCS) or use it for 'Enhanced Oil Recovery' (EOR) in depleting oil and gas fields. The capture of this anthropogenic (man made sources of C02) C02 will mitigate global warming and possibly reduce the impact of climate change. The United States has over 30 years experience with the transportation of carbon dioxide by pipeline mainly from naturally occurring relatively pure C02 sources for onshore EOR. CCS projects differ significantly from this past experience as they will be focusing on anthropogenic sources from major polluters such as fossil fuel power plants and the necessary C02 transport infrastructure will involve both long distance onshore and offshore pipelines. Also the fossil fuel power plants will produce C02 with varying combinations of impurities depending on the capture technology used. CO 2 pipelines have never been designed for these differing conditions; therefore CCS will introduce a new generation of C02 for transport. Application of current design procedures to the new generation pipelines is likely to yield an over-designed pipeline facility with excessive investment and operating cost. In particular the presence of impurities has a significant impact on the physical properties of the transported C02 which affects: pipeline design; compressor/pump power; repressurisationdistance; pipeline capacity. These impurities could also have implications in the fracture control of the pipeline. All these effects have direct implications for both the technical and economic feasibility of developing a carbon dioxide transport infrastructure onshore and offshore. This paper compares and contrasts the current experience of transporting C02 onshore with the proposed transport onshore and offshore for CCS. It covers studies on the effect of physical and transport properties (hydraulics) on key technical aspects of pipeline transportation and the implications for designing and operating a pipeline for C02 containing impurities. The studies reported in the paper have significant implications for future C02 transportation and highlight a number of knowledge gaps that will have to be filled to allow for the efficient and economic design of pipelines for this 'next' generation of anthropogenic C02.

AB - Climate change has been attributed to greenhouse gases with carbon dioxide (C02) being the major contributor. Most of these C02 emissions originate from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. power plants). Governments and industry worldwide are now proposing to capture C02 from their power plants and either store it in depleted reservoirs or saline aquifers ('Carbon Capture and Storage1 CCS) or use it for 'Enhanced Oil Recovery' (EOR) in depleting oil and gas fields. The capture of this anthropogenic (man made sources of C02) C02 will mitigate global warming and possibly reduce the impact of climate change. The United States has over 30 years experience with the transportation of carbon dioxide by pipeline mainly from naturally occurring relatively pure C02 sources for onshore EOR. CCS projects differ significantly from this past experience as they will be focusing on anthropogenic sources from major polluters such as fossil fuel power plants and the necessary C02 transport infrastructure will involve both long distance onshore and offshore pipelines. Also the fossil fuel power plants will produce C02 with varying combinations of impurities depending on the capture technology used. CO 2 pipelines have never been designed for these differing conditions; therefore CCS will introduce a new generation of C02 for transport. Application of current design procedures to the new generation pipelines is likely to yield an over-designed pipeline facility with excessive investment and operating cost. In particular the presence of impurities has a significant impact on the physical properties of the transported C02 which affects: pipeline design; compressor/pump power; repressurisationdistance; pipeline capacity. These impurities could also have implications in the fracture control of the pipeline. All these effects have direct implications for both the technical and economic feasibility of developing a carbon dioxide transport infrastructure onshore and offshore. This paper compares and contrasts the current experience of transporting C02 onshore with the proposed transport onshore and offshore for CCS. It covers studies on the effect of physical and transport properties (hydraulics) on key technical aspects of pipeline transportation and the implications for designing and operating a pipeline for C02 containing impurities. The studies reported in the paper have significant implications for future C02 transportation and highlight a number of knowledge gaps that will have to be filled to allow for the efficient and economic design of pipelines for this 'next' generation of anthropogenic C02.

KW - carbon capture and storage (CCS)

KW - carbon dioxide

KW - impurities

KW - pipelines

KW - transport

KW - a-carbon

KW - anthropogenic sources

KW - carbon capture and storage

KW - depleted reservoirs

KW - design procedure

KW - economic design

KW - economic feasibilities

KW - enhanced oil recovery

KW - fracture control

KW - knowledge gaps

KW - long distances

KW - naturally occurring

KW - oil and gas fields

KW - pipeline capacity

KW - pipeline design

KW - pipeline transportation

KW - saline aquifers

KW - significant impacts

KW - super-critical

KW - technical aspects

KW - transport infrastructure

KW - aquifers

KW - enhanced recovery

KW - fossil fuel power plants

KW - fossil fuels

KW - gas industry

KW - global warming

KW - greenhouse gases

KW - hydrogeology

KW - investments

KW - oil fields

KW - operating costs

KW - petroleum reservoir evaluation

KW - petroleum reservoirs

KW - transport properties

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Seevam PN, Race JM, Downie MJ, Hopkins P. Transporting the next generation of CO2 for carbon capture and storage: The impact of impurities on supercritical CO2 pipelines. 2009. Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2008-64063