Transdermal and buccal delivery of methylxanthines through human tissue in vitro

R.A. Thakur, B.B. Michniak, V.M. Meidan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


We examined the in vitro permeation of central nervous stimulants-caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine across human skin with the aid of six chemical enhancers. It was found that oleic acid was the most potent enhancer for all three methylxanthines. Further optimization studies with different solvents showed that caffeine transport could be enhanced to give flux values up to 585 μg/ Theobromine and theophylline delivery rates proved insufficient. An additional study involving a buccal tissue equivalent showed that this membrane was more permeable than skin for all model actives tested and would offer an alternate way of delivery.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)513-521
Number of pages8
JournalDrug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • transdermal
  • buccal
  • oleic acid
  • terpenes
  • caffeine
  • theobromine
  • theophylline


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