Trans-metal-trapping meets FLP chemistry: Ga(CH2SiMe3)3 induced C-H functionalizations

Marina Uzelac, Alan R. Kennedy, Eva Hevia

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Merging two topical themes in Main Group chemistry, namely cooperative bimetallics and FLP activity, this Forum Article focuses on the cooperativity-induced outcomes observed when the tris(alkyl)gallium compound GaR3 (R= CH2SiMe3) is paired with lithium amide LiTMP (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide) or the sterically hindered NHC ItBu (ItBu = 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). Drawing together some previously published work with new results, unique tandem reactivities are presented which are driven by the steric mismatch between the individual reagents of these multicomponent reagents. Thus the LiTMP/GaR3 combination, which on its own fails to form a co-complex, functions as a highly regioselective base (LiTMP)-trap (GaR3) partnership for metalation of N-heterocycles such as diazines, 1,3 benzo-azoles and 2-picoline in a trans-metal-trapping (TMT) process that stabilizes the emerging sensitive carbanions. Taking advantage of related steric incompatibility, a novel monometallic FLP system pairing GaR3 with ItBu has been developed for activation of carbonyl compounds (via C=O insertion) and other molecules with acidic hydrogen atoms such as phenol and phenylacetylene. Shedding new light on how these non-cocomplexing partnerships operate and showcasing the potential of Ga reagents to engage in metalation reactions or FLP activations, areas where the use of this Group 13 metal is scant, this Forum Article aims to stimulate more interest and activity towards the advancement of organogallium chemistry.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Early online date9 May 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 May 2017

Fingerprint

reagents
Metals
trapping
chemistry
Gallium compounds
gallium compounds
Chemical activation
activation
azoles
metals
Thymidine Monophosphate
Carbonyl compounds
Azoles
incompatibility
carbonyl compounds
Phenol
imidazoles
Lithium
Merging
Amides

Keywords

  • gallium
  • cooperative chemistry
  • trans-metal-trapping
  • frustrated lewis pairs
  • non-cocomplexing partnerships

Cite this

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title = "Trans-metal-trapping meets FLP chemistry: Ga(CH2SiMe3)3 induced C-H functionalizations",
abstract = "Merging two topical themes in Main Group chemistry, namely cooperative bimetallics and FLP activity, this Forum Article focuses on the cooperativity-induced outcomes observed when the tris(alkyl)gallium compound GaR3 (R= CH2SiMe3) is paired with lithium amide LiTMP (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide) or the sterically hindered NHC ItBu (ItBu = 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). Drawing together some previously published work with new results, unique tandem reactivities are presented which are driven by the steric mismatch between the individual reagents of these multicomponent reagents. Thus the LiTMP/GaR3 combination, which on its own fails to form a co-complex, functions as a highly regioselective base (LiTMP)-trap (GaR3) partnership for metalation of N-heterocycles such as diazines, 1,3 benzo-azoles and 2-picoline in a trans-metal-trapping (TMT) process that stabilizes the emerging sensitive carbanions. Taking advantage of related steric incompatibility, a novel monometallic FLP system pairing GaR3 with ItBu has been developed for activation of carbonyl compounds (via C=O insertion) and other molecules with acidic hydrogen atoms such as phenol and phenylacetylene. Shedding new light on how these non-cocomplexing partnerships operate and showcasing the potential of Ga reagents to engage in metalation reactions or FLP activations, areas where the use of this Group 13 metal is scant, this Forum Article aims to stimulate more interest and activity towards the advancement of organogallium chemistry.",
keywords = "gallium, cooperative chemistry, trans-metal-trapping, frustrated lewis pairs, non-cocomplexing partnerships",
author = "Marina Uzelac and Kennedy, {Alan R.} and Eva Hevia",
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T1 - Trans-metal-trapping meets FLP chemistry

T2 - Inorganic Chemistry

AU - Uzelac, Marina

AU - Kennedy, Alan R.

AU - Hevia, Eva

PY - 2017/5/9

Y1 - 2017/5/9

N2 - Merging two topical themes in Main Group chemistry, namely cooperative bimetallics and FLP activity, this Forum Article focuses on the cooperativity-induced outcomes observed when the tris(alkyl)gallium compound GaR3 (R= CH2SiMe3) is paired with lithium amide LiTMP (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide) or the sterically hindered NHC ItBu (ItBu = 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). Drawing together some previously published work with new results, unique tandem reactivities are presented which are driven by the steric mismatch between the individual reagents of these multicomponent reagents. Thus the LiTMP/GaR3 combination, which on its own fails to form a co-complex, functions as a highly regioselective base (LiTMP)-trap (GaR3) partnership for metalation of N-heterocycles such as diazines, 1,3 benzo-azoles and 2-picoline in a trans-metal-trapping (TMT) process that stabilizes the emerging sensitive carbanions. Taking advantage of related steric incompatibility, a novel monometallic FLP system pairing GaR3 with ItBu has been developed for activation of carbonyl compounds (via C=O insertion) and other molecules with acidic hydrogen atoms such as phenol and phenylacetylene. Shedding new light on how these non-cocomplexing partnerships operate and showcasing the potential of Ga reagents to engage in metalation reactions or FLP activations, areas where the use of this Group 13 metal is scant, this Forum Article aims to stimulate more interest and activity towards the advancement of organogallium chemistry.

AB - Merging two topical themes in Main Group chemistry, namely cooperative bimetallics and FLP activity, this Forum Article focuses on the cooperativity-induced outcomes observed when the tris(alkyl)gallium compound GaR3 (R= CH2SiMe3) is paired with lithium amide LiTMP (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide) or the sterically hindered NHC ItBu (ItBu = 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). Drawing together some previously published work with new results, unique tandem reactivities are presented which are driven by the steric mismatch between the individual reagents of these multicomponent reagents. Thus the LiTMP/GaR3 combination, which on its own fails to form a co-complex, functions as a highly regioselective base (LiTMP)-trap (GaR3) partnership for metalation of N-heterocycles such as diazines, 1,3 benzo-azoles and 2-picoline in a trans-metal-trapping (TMT) process that stabilizes the emerging sensitive carbanions. Taking advantage of related steric incompatibility, a novel monometallic FLP system pairing GaR3 with ItBu has been developed for activation of carbonyl compounds (via C=O insertion) and other molecules with acidic hydrogen atoms such as phenol and phenylacetylene. Shedding new light on how these non-cocomplexing partnerships operate and showcasing the potential of Ga reagents to engage in metalation reactions or FLP activations, areas where the use of this Group 13 metal is scant, this Forum Article aims to stimulate more interest and activity towards the advancement of organogallium chemistry.

KW - gallium

KW - cooperative chemistry

KW - trans-metal-trapping

KW - frustrated lewis pairs

KW - non-cocomplexing partnerships

UR - http://pubs.acs.org/loi/inocaj

U2 - 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.7b00549

DO - 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.7b00549

M3 - Article

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JF - Inorganic Chemistry

SN - 0020-1669

ER -