Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 3 (GRA3) is a type I transmembrane protein that possesses a cytoplasmic dilysine (KKXX) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif

F L Henriquez, M B Nickdel, R McLeod, R E Lyons, K Lyons, J F Dubremetz, M E Grigg, B U Samuel, C W Roberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Studies using antibodies to immunolocalize the Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein GRA3, have shown that this protein associates strongly with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). However, as there was no predicted membrane-spanning domain this highlighted an unanswered paradox. We demonstrate that the previously published sequence for GRA3 is actually an artificial chimera of 2 proteins. One protein, of molecular weight 65 kDa, shares the C-terminus with published GRA3 and possesses no significant sequence similarity with any protein thus far deposited in Genbank. The second, with a predicted molecular weight of 24 kDa shares the N-terminal region, is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2H11 known to react with the dense granules of T. gondii and is therefore the authentic GRA3. The corrected GRA3 has an N-terminal secretory signal sequence and a transmembrane domain consistent with its insertion into the PVM. Antibodies to recombinant GRA3 recognize a protein of 24 kDa in T. gondii excretory-secretory antigen preparations. The signal peptide is necessary and sufficient to target GFP to the dense granules and parasitophorous vacuole. A homologue was identified in Neospora caninum. Finally, GRA3 possesses a dilysine 'KKXX' endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif that rationalizes its association with PVM and possibly the host cell ER.

LanguageEnglish
Pages169-179
Number of pages11
JournalParasitology
Volume131
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2005

Fingerprint

lysyllysine
transmembrane proteins
Toxoplasma
Toxoplasma gondii
Endoplasmic Reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum
granules
Proteins
proteins
Vacuoles
vacuoles
Membranes
Protein Sorting Signals
signal peptide
Molecular Weight
Neospora
molecular weight
Antibodies
antibodies
Nucleic Acid Databases

Keywords

  • Apicomplexan
  • Toxoplasma
  • dense granules
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Neospora
  • parasitophorous vacuole

Cite this

Henriquez, F L ; Nickdel, M B ; McLeod, R ; Lyons, R E ; Lyons, K ; Dubremetz, J F ; Grigg, M E ; Samuel, B U ; Roberts, C W . / Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 3 (GRA3) is a type I transmembrane protein that possesses a cytoplasmic dilysine (KKXX) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif. In: Parasitology. 2005 ; Vol. 131, No. 2. pp. 169-179.
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abstract = "Studies using antibodies to immunolocalize the Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein GRA3, have shown that this protein associates strongly with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). However, as there was no predicted membrane-spanning domain this highlighted an unanswered paradox. We demonstrate that the previously published sequence for GRA3 is actually an artificial chimera of 2 proteins. One protein, of molecular weight 65 kDa, shares the C-terminus with published GRA3 and possesses no significant sequence similarity with any protein thus far deposited in Genbank. The second, with a predicted molecular weight of 24 kDa shares the N-terminal region, is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2H11 known to react with the dense granules of T. gondii and is therefore the authentic GRA3. The corrected GRA3 has an N-terminal secretory signal sequence and a transmembrane domain consistent with its insertion into the PVM. Antibodies to recombinant GRA3 recognize a protein of 24 kDa in T. gondii excretory-secretory antigen preparations. The signal peptide is necessary and sufficient to target GFP to the dense granules and parasitophorous vacuole. A homologue was identified in Neospora caninum. Finally, GRA3 possesses a dilysine 'KKXX' endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif that rationalizes its association with PVM and possibly the host cell ER.",
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Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 3 (GRA3) is a type I transmembrane protein that possesses a cytoplasmic dilysine (KKXX) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif. / Henriquez, F L ; Nickdel, M B ; McLeod, R ; Lyons, R E ; Lyons, K ; Dubremetz, J F ; Grigg, M E ; Samuel, B U ; Roberts, C W .

In: Parasitology, Vol. 131, No. 2, 08.2005, p. 169-179.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 3 (GRA3) is a type I transmembrane protein that possesses a cytoplasmic dilysine (KKXX) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif

AU - Henriquez, F L

AU - Nickdel, M B

AU - McLeod, R

AU - Lyons, R E

AU - Lyons, K

AU - Dubremetz, J F

AU - Grigg, M E

AU - Samuel, B U

AU - Roberts, C W

PY - 2005/8

Y1 - 2005/8

N2 - Studies using antibodies to immunolocalize the Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein GRA3, have shown that this protein associates strongly with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). However, as there was no predicted membrane-spanning domain this highlighted an unanswered paradox. We demonstrate that the previously published sequence for GRA3 is actually an artificial chimera of 2 proteins. One protein, of molecular weight 65 kDa, shares the C-terminus with published GRA3 and possesses no significant sequence similarity with any protein thus far deposited in Genbank. The second, with a predicted molecular weight of 24 kDa shares the N-terminal region, is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2H11 known to react with the dense granules of T. gondii and is therefore the authentic GRA3. The corrected GRA3 has an N-terminal secretory signal sequence and a transmembrane domain consistent with its insertion into the PVM. Antibodies to recombinant GRA3 recognize a protein of 24 kDa in T. gondii excretory-secretory antigen preparations. The signal peptide is necessary and sufficient to target GFP to the dense granules and parasitophorous vacuole. A homologue was identified in Neospora caninum. Finally, GRA3 possesses a dilysine 'KKXX' endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif that rationalizes its association with PVM and possibly the host cell ER.

AB - Studies using antibodies to immunolocalize the Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein GRA3, have shown that this protein associates strongly with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). However, as there was no predicted membrane-spanning domain this highlighted an unanswered paradox. We demonstrate that the previously published sequence for GRA3 is actually an artificial chimera of 2 proteins. One protein, of molecular weight 65 kDa, shares the C-terminus with published GRA3 and possesses no significant sequence similarity with any protein thus far deposited in Genbank. The second, with a predicted molecular weight of 24 kDa shares the N-terminal region, is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2H11 known to react with the dense granules of T. gondii and is therefore the authentic GRA3. The corrected GRA3 has an N-terminal secretory signal sequence and a transmembrane domain consistent with its insertion into the PVM. Antibodies to recombinant GRA3 recognize a protein of 24 kDa in T. gondii excretory-secretory antigen preparations. The signal peptide is necessary and sufficient to target GFP to the dense granules and parasitophorous vacuole. A homologue was identified in Neospora caninum. Finally, GRA3 possesses a dilysine 'KKXX' endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif that rationalizes its association with PVM and possibly the host cell ER.

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KW - Toxoplasma

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KW - endoplasmic reticulum

KW - Neospora

KW - parasitophorous vacuole

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SN - 0031-1820

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