Tool for rapid annotation of microbial SNPs (TRAMS): a simple program for rapid annotation of genomic variation in prokaryotes

Richard A Reumerman, Nicholas P Tucker, Paul R Herron, Paul A Hoskisson, Vartul Sangal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been widely used to study genomic variation in a variety of prokaryotes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) resulting from genomic comparisons need to be annotated for their functional impact on the coding sequences. We have developed a program, TRAMS, for functional annotation of genomic SNPs which is available to download as a single file executable for WINDOWS users with limited computational experience and as a Python script for Mac OS and Linux users. TRAMS needs a tab delimited text file containing SNP locations, reference nucleotide and SNPs in variant strains along with a reference genome sequence in GenBank or EMBL format. SNPs are annotated as synonymous, nonsynonymous or nonsense. Nonsynonymous SNPs in start and stop codons are separated as non-start and non-stop SNPs, respectively. SNPs in multiple overlapping features are annotated separately for each feature and multiple nucleotide polymorphisms within a codon are combined before annotation. We have also developed a workflow for Galaxy, a highly used tool for analysing NGS data, to map short reads to a reference genome and extract and annotate the SNPs. TRAMS is a simple program for rapid and accurate annotation of SNPs that will be very useful for microbiologists in analysing genomic diversity in microbial populations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)431-434
Number of pages4
JournalAntonie van Leeuwenhoek: International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2013


  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • multiple nucleotides polymorphism
  • SNP annotation
  • synonymous
  • nonsynonymous
  • codon


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