Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques suitable for solid-state imaging sensor arrays

David Day Uei Li, Simon Ameer-Beg, Jochen Arlt, David Tyndall, Richard Walker, Daniel R. Matthews, Viput Visitkul, Justin Richardson, Robert K. Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)
74 Downloads (Pure)


We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber) are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5650-5669
Number of pages20
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2 May 2012


  • CMOS
  • FLIM
  • fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
  • lifetime based sensing
  • multi-decay
  • single-decay
  • single-photon avalanche diodes
  • time-domain FLIM


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