Three-dimensional cell culture of chondrocytes on modified di-phenylaianine scaffolds

V. Jayawarna, A. Smith, J. E. Gough, R. V. Ulijn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The design of self-assembled peptide-based structures for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue repair has been a key objective in biomaterials science for decades. in search of the simplest possible peptide system that can self-assemble, we discovered that combinations of di-peptides that are modified with aromatic stacking ligands could form nanometre-sized fibres when exposed to physiological conditions. For example, we demonstrated that a number of Fmoc (fluoren-9-ylmethyloxycarbonyl) modified di- and tri-peptides form highly ordered hydrogels via hydrogen-bonding and pi-pi interactions from the fluorenyl rings. These highly hydrated gels allowed for cell proliferation of chondrocytes in three dimensions [Jayawarna, Ali, Jowitt, Miller, Sal Gough and Ulijn (2006) Adv. Mater. 18, 611-614]. We demonstrated that fibrous architecture and physical properties of the resulting materials were dictated by the nature of the amino acid building blocks. Here, we report the self-assembly process of three di-phenylalanine analogues, Fmoc-Phe-Phe-OH, Nap (naphthalene)-Phe-Phe-OH and Cbz (benzyloxycarbonyl)-Phe-Phe-OH, to compare and contrast the self-assembly properties and cell culture conditions attributable to their protecting group difference. Fibre morphology analysis of the three structures using cryo-SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) suggested fibrous structures with dramatically varying fibril dimensions, depending on the aromatic ligand used. CD and FTIR (Fourier-transform IR) data confirmed beta-sheet arrangements in all three samples in the gel state. The ability of these three new hydrogels to support cell proliferation of chondrocytes was confirmed for all three materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-537
Number of pages3
JournalBiochemical Society Transactions
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007

Keywords

  • three-dimensional cell culture
  • chondrocytes
  • modified di-phenylaianine scaffolds
  • cell proliferation
  • chondrocyte
  • fluoren-9-ylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc)
  • hydrogel
  • self-assembly

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