Thermal feedback identification in a mobile environment

Graham Wilson, Stephen Brewster, Martin Halvey, Stephen Hughes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Audio and vibrotactile feedback are not always suitable or desirable, as noise and/or movement may mask them, and so thermal feedback may provide a salient alternative. In this paper, the identification of 'thermal icons' (structured thermal feedback) was tested as a means of conveying information when users were sitting and walking in an outdoor location. Overall identification rate for thermal icons was 64.6%, but identification of individual parameters was promising, at 94% accuracy for direction of thermal change (warming/cooling) and 73.1% accuracy for subjective intensity (moderate/strong). Results showed that walking outdoors did not significantly worsen icon identification compared to sitting outdoors, but the environmental temperature had a strong influence. Recommendations are given on how better to design and adapt thermal feedback for use in outdoor mobile scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHaptic and Audio Interface Design
Subtitle of host publication8th International Workshop, HAID 2013, Daejeon, Korea, April 18-19, 2013, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsIan Oakley, Stephen Brewster
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Event8th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design - Daejeon, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 8 Apr 20139 Apr 2013

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
ISSN (Print)0302-9743


Conference8th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design
Country/TerritoryKorea, Republic of


  • mobile interaction
  • non-visual feedback
  • thermal feedback


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