Audio and vibrotactile feedback are not always suitable or desirable, as noise and/or movement may mask them, and so thermal feedback may provide a salient alternative. In this paper, the identification of 'thermal icons' (structured thermal feedback) was tested as a means of conveying information when users were sitting and walking in an outdoor location. Overall identification rate for thermal icons was 64.6%, but identification of individual parameters was promising, at 94% accuracy for direction of thermal change (warming/cooling) and 73.1% accuracy for subjective intensity (moderate/strong). Results showed that walking outdoors did not significantly worsen icon identification compared to sitting outdoors, but the environmental temperature had a strong influence. Recommendations are given on how better to design and adapt thermal feedback for use in outdoor mobile scenarios.
|Name||Lecture Notes in Computer Science|
|Conference||8th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design|
|Country||Korea, Republic of|
|Period||8/04/13 → 9/04/13|
- mobile interaction
- non-visual feedback
- thermal feedback