Theory of relativistic electron holes in hot plasmas

B. Eliasson, P.K. Shukla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


We present a theory for finite-amplitude relativistic electron holes, which are localized Bernstein–Greene–Kruskal (BGK) solutions characterized by a trapped population of electrons moving with the electron hole. We find that the relativistic effects can drastically modify the electron hole, which becomes wider and is associated with a larger electrostatic potential, accelerating the electrons to highly relativistic energies. The theory has relevance for understanding the properties of strong localized electric fields in high-energy laser-plasma experiments and in supernovae remnants, where relativistic electron holes are a natural product of streaming instabilities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237–242
Number of pages6
JournalPhysics Letters A
Issue number1-4
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2005


  • relativistic
  • electron holes


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