Ultrasonic welding (consolidation) process is a rapid manufacturing process that is used to join thin layers of metal at low temperature and low energy consumption. Experimental results have shown that ultrasonic welding is a combination of both surface (friction) and volume (plasticity) softening effects. In the presented work, an attempt has been made to simulate the ultrasonic welding of metals by taking into account these effects (surface and volume). A phenomenological material model has been proposed, which incorporates these two effects (i.e., surface and volume). The thermal softening due to friction and ultrasonic (acoustic) softening has been included in the proposed material model. For surface effects, a friction law with variable coefficient of friction that is dependent on contact pressure, slip, temperature, and number of cycles has been derived from experimental friction tests. The results of the thermomechanical analyses of ultrasonic welding of aluminum alloy have been presented. The goal of this work is to study the effects of ultrasonic welding process parameters, such as applied load, amplitude of ultrasonic oscillation, and velocity of welding sonotrode on the friction work at the weld interface. The change in the friction work at the weld interface has been explained on the basis of softening (thermal and acoustic) of the specimen during the ultrasonic welding process. In the end, a comparison between experimental and simulated results has been presented, showing a good agreement.
- aluminium alloy
- ultrasonic welding