The triple helix perspective of innovation systems

Loet Leydesdorff, Girma Zawdie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Citations (Scopus)


Alongside the neo-institutional model of networked relations among universities, industries, and governments, the triple helix can be provided with a neo-evolutionary interpretation as three selection environments operating upon one another: markets, organisations and technological opportunities. How are technological innovation systems different from national ones? The three selection environments fulfil social functions: wealth creation, organisation control and organised knowledge production. The main carriers of this system – industry, government and academia – provide the variation both recursively and by interacting among them under the pressure of competition. Empirical case studies enable us to understand how these evolutionary mechanisms can be expected to operate in historical instances. The model is needed for distinguishing, for example, between trajectories and regimes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)789-804
Number of pages16
JournalTechnology Analysis and Strategic Management
Issue number7
Early online date23 Sept 2010
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010


  • selection
  • technological trajectories
  • innovation systems
  • triple helix
  • evolutionary theory
  • knowledge base
  • environments
  • regimes


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