The solid state

A.J. Florence, Alexander Florence (Editor), Juergen Siepmann (Editor)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can exist in more than one solid-state form, including crystalline polymorphs, solvates, salts, cocrystals, and noncrystalline or amorphous solids (Fig. 1; Table 1). Hence, assessment and control of the solid-state structure of APIs is necessary to ensure efficient and reproducible processing, manufacturing, and storage; to satisfy regulatory authorities; to protect intellectual property; and ultimately to deliver safe, effective, and high-quality medicinal products. This section introduces key practical aspects of solid-state pharmaceuticals, with a specific emphasis on crystalline solids and their preparation, handling, and analysis, particularly in the context of preclinical drug development and pharmaceutical manufacture.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationModern pharmaceutics, Fifth Edition
Place of PublicationNew York, USA
PublisherInforma Healthcare
Number of pages500
ISBN (Print)9781420065657
Publication statusPublished - May 2009


  • solid state
  • drug delivery
  • excipients
  • tablets
  • aerosols
  • techniques
  • pharmaceuticals
  • drug absorption
  • pharmacokinetics
  • dose forms
  • preformulation
  • optimization
  • systems
  • release
  • bioequivalence
  • processes
  • products
  • pharmaceutics
  • personalized medicines
  • evaluation
  • physics
  • in vivo imaging
  • biotechnology


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