The physiology of protein S-acylation

Luke H. Chamberlain, Michael J. Shipston

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

83 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Protein S-acylation, the only fully reversible posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, is emerging as a ubiquitous mechanism to control the properties and function of a diverse array of proteins and consequently physiological processes. S-acylation results from the enzymatic addition of long-chain lipids, most typically palmitate, onto intracellular cysteine residues of soluble and transmembrane proteins via a labile thioester linkage. Addition of lipid results in increases in protein hydrophobicity that can impact on protein structure, assembly, maturation, trafficking, and function. The recent explosion in global S-acylation (palmitoyl) proteomic profiling as a result of improved biochemical tools to assay S-acylation, in conjunction with the recent identification of enzymes that control protein S-acylation and de-acylation, has opened a new vista into the physiological function of S-acylation. This review introduces key features of S-acylation and tools to interrogate this process, and highlights the eclectic array of proteins regulated including membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, enzymes and kinases, signaling adapters and chaperones, cell adhesion, and structural proteins. We highlight recent findings correlating disruption of S-acylation to pathophysiology and disease and discuss some of the major challenges and opportunities in this rapidly expanding field.
LanguageEnglish
Pages341-376
Number of pages36
JournalPhysiological Reviews
Volume95
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2015

Fingerprint

Acylation
Protein S
Protein Array Analysis
Proteins
Lipids
Physiological Phenomena
Explosions
Palmitates
Enzymes
Post Translational Protein Processing
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Ion Channels
Cell Adhesion
Proteomics
Cysteine
Phosphotransferases
Membranes

Keywords

  • S-acylation
  • palmitoylation
  • zdhhc

Cite this

Chamberlain, Luke H. ; Shipston, Michael J. / The physiology of protein S-acylation. In: Physiological Reviews. 2015 ; Vol. 95, No. 2. pp. 341-376.
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The physiology of protein S-acylation. / Chamberlain, Luke H.; Shipston, Michael J.

In: Physiological Reviews, Vol. 95, No. 2, 01.04.2015, p. 341-376.

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

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