The nitric oxide-donating pravastatin derivative, ncx 6550 [(1s-[1 alpha(beta s*,delta s*), 2 alpha, 6 alpha, 8 beta-(R*),8a alpha]]-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-beta,delta,6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-8-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-1-naphtalene-heptanoic acid 4-(nitrooxy) butyl ester)], reduces splenocyte adhesion and reactive oxygen species generation in normal and atherosclerotic mice

G. Dever, C.M. Spickett, S. Kennedy, C. Rush, G.M. Tennant, A. Monopoli, C.L. Wainwright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Statins possess anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to their ability to slow atherogenesis, whereas nitric oxide (NO) also influences inflammatory cell adhesion. This study aimed to determine whether a novel NO-donating pravastatin derivative, NCX 6550 [(1S-[1α(βS*,δS*),2α,6α,8β-(R*),8aα]]-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-β,δ,6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-8-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-1-naphthalene-heptanoic acid 4-(nitrooxy)butyl ester)], has greater anti-inflammatory properties compared with pravastatin in normal and atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E receptor knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. C57BL/6 and ApoE-/- mice were administered pravastatin (40 mg/kg), NCX 6550 (48.5 mg/kg), or vehicle orally for 5 days. Ex vivo studies assessed splenocyte adhesion to arterial segments and splenocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. NCX 6550 significantly reduced splenocyte adhesion to artery segments in both C57BL/6 (8.8 ± 1.9% versus 16.6 ± 6.7% adhesion; P < 0.05) and ApoE-/- mice (9.3 ± 2.9% versus 23.4 ± 4.6% adhesion; P < 0.05) concomitant with an inhibition of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. NCX 6550 also significantly reduced phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced ROS production that was enhanced in isolated ApoE-/- splenocytes. Conversely, pravastatin had no significant effects on adhesion in normal or ApoE-/- mice but reduced the enhanced ROS production from ApoE-/- splenocytes. In separate groups of ApoE-/- mice, NCX 6550 significantly enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation to carbachol in aortic segments precon-tracted with phenylephrine (-logEC50, 6.37 ± 0.37) compared with both vehicle-treated (-logEC50, 5.81 ± 0.15; P < 0.001) and pravastatin-treated (-logEC50, 5.57 ± 0.45; P < 0.05) mice. NCX 6550 also significantly reduced plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels (648.8 pg/ml) compared with both vehicle (1191.1 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and pravastatin (847 ± 71.0 pg/ml; P < 0.05) treatment. These data show that NCX 6550 exerts superior anti-inflammatory actions compared with pravastatin, possibly through NO-related mechanisms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-426
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume320
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007

Keywords

  • COA reductase inhibitors
  • human endothelial cells
  • coronary heart disease
  • leukocyte adhesion
  • inflammation

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