The impact of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO) concentration on the crystallisation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) systems and the resulting changes to viscosity, crystal structure, shape and the kinetics of crystal growth

Emily Summerton, Martin J. Hollamby, Georgina Zimbitas, Tim Snow, Andrew J. Smith, Jens Sommertune, Jeanluc Bettiol, Christopher Jones, Melanie M. Britton, Serafim Bakalis

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Abstract

Hypothesis: At low temperatures stability issues arise in commercial detergent products when surfactant crystallisation occurs, a process which is not currently well-understood. An understanding of the phase transition can be obtained using a simple binary SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) + DDAO (N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide) aqueous system. It expected that the crystallisation temperature of an SDS system can be lowered with addition of DDAO, thus providing a route to improve detergent stability. Experiments: Detergent systems are typically comprised of anionic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants and water. This study explores the crystallisation of a three component system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), N,N–dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO), and water using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and confocal Raman microscopy. Findings: The presence of DDAO lowered the crystallisation temperature of a 20 wt. % SDS system. For all aqueous mixtures of SDS + DDAO at low temperatures, SDS hydrated crystals, SDS.1/2H2O or SDS.H2O, formed. SDS hydrates comprising of layers of SDS separated by water layers. DDAO tended to reside in the vicinity of these SDS crystals. In the absence of DDAO an additional intermediary hydrate structure, SDS.1/8H2O, formed whereas for mixed SDS + DDAO systems no such structure was detected during crystallisation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Colloid and Interface Science
Early online date19 May 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 May 2018

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Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Crystallization
Crystal growth
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Crystal structure
Viscosity
Kinetics
Oxides
Detergents
Hydrates
Water
dodecyldimethylamine oxide
Temperature
Crystals
Anionic surfactants
Nonionic surfactants
X ray scattering
Surface-Active Agents
Differential scanning calorimetry
Microscopic examination

Keywords

  • sodium dodecyl sulfate
  • detergent stability
  • X-ray scattering
  • crystallization
  • low temperature
  • N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide

Cite this

@article{1d5535eca0ef416c82cdae5ff6b32c73,
title = "The impact of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO) concentration on the crystallisation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) systems and the resulting changes to viscosity, crystal structure, shape and the kinetics of crystal growth",
abstract = "Hypothesis: At low temperatures stability issues arise in commercial detergent products when surfactant crystallisation occurs, a process which is not currently well-understood. An understanding of the phase transition can be obtained using a simple binary SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) + DDAO (N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide) aqueous system. It expected that the crystallisation temperature of an SDS system can be lowered with addition of DDAO, thus providing a route to improve detergent stability. Experiments: Detergent systems are typically comprised of anionic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants and water. This study explores the crystallisation of a three component system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), N,N–dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO), and water using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and confocal Raman microscopy. Findings: The presence of DDAO lowered the crystallisation temperature of a 20 wt. {\%} SDS system. For all aqueous mixtures of SDS + DDAO at low temperatures, SDS hydrated crystals, SDS.1/2H2O or SDS.H2O, formed. SDS hydrates comprising of layers of SDS separated by water layers. DDAO tended to reside in the vicinity of these SDS crystals. In the absence of DDAO an additional intermediary hydrate structure, SDS.1/8H2O, formed whereas for mixed SDS + DDAO systems no such structure was detected during crystallisation.",
keywords = "sodium dodecyl sulfate, detergent stability, X-ray scattering, crystallization, low temperature, N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide",
author = "Emily Summerton and Hollamby, {Martin J.} and Georgina Zimbitas and Tim Snow and Smith, {Andrew J.} and Jens Sommertune and Jeanluc Bettiol and Christopher Jones and Britton, {Melanie M.} and Serafim Bakalis",
year = "2018",
month = "5",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1016/j.jcis.2018.05.058",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Colloid and Interface Science",
issn = "0021-9797",

}

The impact of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO) concentration on the crystallisation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) systems and the resulting changes to viscosity, crystal structure, shape and the kinetics of crystal growth. / Summerton, Emily; Hollamby, Martin J. ; Zimbitas, Georgina; Snow, Tim; Smith, Andrew J. ; Sommertune, Jens; Bettiol, Jeanluc; Jones, Christopher ; Britton, Melanie M.; Bakalis, Serafim.

In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 19.05.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The impact of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO) concentration on the crystallisation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) systems and the resulting changes to viscosity, crystal structure, shape and the kinetics of crystal growth

AU - Summerton, Emily

AU - Hollamby, Martin J.

AU - Zimbitas, Georgina

AU - Snow, Tim

AU - Smith, Andrew J.

AU - Sommertune, Jens

AU - Bettiol, Jeanluc

AU - Jones, Christopher

AU - Britton, Melanie M.

AU - Bakalis, Serafim

PY - 2018/5/19

Y1 - 2018/5/19

N2 - Hypothesis: At low temperatures stability issues arise in commercial detergent products when surfactant crystallisation occurs, a process which is not currently well-understood. An understanding of the phase transition can be obtained using a simple binary SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) + DDAO (N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide) aqueous system. It expected that the crystallisation temperature of an SDS system can be lowered with addition of DDAO, thus providing a route to improve detergent stability. Experiments: Detergent systems are typically comprised of anionic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants and water. This study explores the crystallisation of a three component system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), N,N–dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO), and water using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and confocal Raman microscopy. Findings: The presence of DDAO lowered the crystallisation temperature of a 20 wt. % SDS system. For all aqueous mixtures of SDS + DDAO at low temperatures, SDS hydrated crystals, SDS.1/2H2O or SDS.H2O, formed. SDS hydrates comprising of layers of SDS separated by water layers. DDAO tended to reside in the vicinity of these SDS crystals. In the absence of DDAO an additional intermediary hydrate structure, SDS.1/8H2O, formed whereas for mixed SDS + DDAO systems no such structure was detected during crystallisation.

AB - Hypothesis: At low temperatures stability issues arise in commercial detergent products when surfactant crystallisation occurs, a process which is not currently well-understood. An understanding of the phase transition can be obtained using a simple binary SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) + DDAO (N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide) aqueous system. It expected that the crystallisation temperature of an SDS system can be lowered with addition of DDAO, thus providing a route to improve detergent stability. Experiments: Detergent systems are typically comprised of anionic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants and water. This study explores the crystallisation of a three component system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), N,N–dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO), and water using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and confocal Raman microscopy. Findings: The presence of DDAO lowered the crystallisation temperature of a 20 wt. % SDS system. For all aqueous mixtures of SDS + DDAO at low temperatures, SDS hydrated crystals, SDS.1/2H2O or SDS.H2O, formed. SDS hydrates comprising of layers of SDS separated by water layers. DDAO tended to reside in the vicinity of these SDS crystals. In the absence of DDAO an additional intermediary hydrate structure, SDS.1/8H2O, formed whereas for mixed SDS + DDAO systems no such structure was detected during crystallisation.

KW - sodium dodecyl sulfate

KW - detergent stability

KW - X-ray scattering

KW - crystallization

KW - low temperature

KW - N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide

U2 - 10.1016/j.jcis.2018.05.058

DO - 10.1016/j.jcis.2018.05.058

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of Colloid and Interface Science

JF - Journal of Colloid and Interface Science

SN - 0021-9797

ER -