The gut in the beaker

missing the surfactants

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Citations (Scopus)
38 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants. Interactions start in the mouth and during swallowing but the stomach and small intestine present the major challenges related to drug dissolution, solubility, the impact of surfactants and supersaturation along with precipitation. The behaviour of lipid based formulations and the influence of surfactant excipients is explored along with the difficulties of translating in vitro results to in vivo performance. Possible future research areas are highlighted with the conclusion that, “a great deal of work using modern methods is still required to clarify the situation”.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-80
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Volume514
Issue number1
Early online date15 Nov 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2016

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Surface-Active Agents
Excipients
Gastrointestinal Agents
Drug Compounding
Deglutition
Bile Acids and Salts
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Solubility
Small Intestine
Mouth
Gastrointestinal Tract
Stomach
Diet
Lipids
In Vitro Techniques

Keywords

  • gastrointestinal tract
  • surfactant
  • bile salt
  • lipid-based formulation
  • physiology
  • formulation

Cite this

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title = "The gut in the beaker: missing the surfactants",
abstract = "Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants. Interactions start in the mouth and during swallowing but the stomach and small intestine present the major challenges related to drug dissolution, solubility, the impact of surfactants and supersaturation along with precipitation. The behaviour of lipid based formulations and the influence of surfactant excipients is explored along with the difficulties of translating in vitro results to in vivo performance. Possible future research areas are highlighted with the conclusion that, “a great deal of work using modern methods is still required to clarify the situation”.",
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The gut in the beaker : missing the surfactants. / Wilson, Clive G.; Halbert, Gavin W.; Mains, Jenifer.

In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol. 514, No. 1, 30.11.2016, p. 73-80.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - The gut in the beaker

T2 - missing the surfactants

AU - Wilson, Clive G.

AU - Halbert, Gavin W.

AU - Mains, Jenifer

PY - 2016/11/30

Y1 - 2016/11/30

N2 - Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants. Interactions start in the mouth and during swallowing but the stomach and small intestine present the major challenges related to drug dissolution, solubility, the impact of surfactants and supersaturation along with precipitation. The behaviour of lipid based formulations and the influence of surfactant excipients is explored along with the difficulties of translating in vitro results to in vivo performance. Possible future research areas are highlighted with the conclusion that, “a great deal of work using modern methods is still required to clarify the situation”.

AB - Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants. Interactions start in the mouth and during swallowing but the stomach and small intestine present the major challenges related to drug dissolution, solubility, the impact of surfactants and supersaturation along with precipitation. The behaviour of lipid based formulations and the influence of surfactant excipients is explored along with the difficulties of translating in vitro results to in vivo performance. Possible future research areas are highlighted with the conclusion that, “a great deal of work using modern methods is still required to clarify the situation”.

KW - gastrointestinal tract

KW - surfactant

KW - bile salt

KW - lipid-based formulation

KW - physiology

KW - formulation

UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517316308535

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DO - 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.09.032

M3 - Review article

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JO - International Journal of Pharmaceutics

JF - International Journal of Pharmaceutics

SN - 0378-5173

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