Phagocytic cells produce a variety of oxidants as part of the immune defence, which react readily both with proteins and lipids, and could contribute to the oxidation of low density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis. We have investigated the oxidation of phospholipid vesicles by neutrophils and mononuclear cells, to provide a model of lipid oxidation in the absence of competing protein. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils were incubated with phospholipid vesicles containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, palmitoyl-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine (PAPC) and stearoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine, before extraction of the lipids for analysis by HPLC coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry. The formation of monohydroperoxides (814 m/z) and bis-hydroperoxides (846 m/z) of PAPC was observed. However, the major oxidized product occurred at 828 m/z, and was identified as 1-palmitoyl-2-(5,6-epoxyisoprostane E-2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. These products were also formed in incubations where the neutrophils were replaced by mononuclear cells, and the amounts produced per million cells were similar. These results show that following oxidative attack by phagocytes stimulated by PMA, intact phospholipid oxidation products can be detected. The identification of an epoxyisoprostane phospholipid as the major product of phagocyte-induced phospholipid oxidation is novel, and in view of its inflammatory properties has implications for phagocyte involvement in atherogenesis.
- electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
- oxidative damage
- phospholipid hydroperoxide