The Export Base Model with a Supply-Side Stimulus to the Export Sector

Soo Jung Ha, J. Kim Swales

Research output: Working paperDiscussion paper

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the export-base model, the level of a region’s economic activity is underpinned by the performance of its export sector (Daly, 1940; Dixon and Thirlwall, 1975; Kaldor, 1970; North, 1955). This theory is now almost universally represented as a primitive version of the familiar Input-Output (IO) or Keynesian demand-driven approach, where regional output is linked to regional exports through a rather mechanistic multiplier process (Romanoff, 1974). Further, in a standard IO inter-regional framework, the expansion of output in one region always generates positive impacts on other regions. That is to say, there is always a positive spread, and no negative backwash, effect. However, these models typically embody no supply-side constraints. What is more, the stimulus to the export sector is often thought to come through supply-side improvements (North, 1955; McCombie, 1992). Whilst accepting that the development of a healthy export base is generally central to promoting the growth of the regional economy, the relationship is likely to be much more complex than is usually thought. Also whilst an increase in regional exports typically increases economic activity in the target region, the effect on other regions is less straightforward (Myrdal, 1957). In this paper we begin by using a single-region IO analysis of the operation of a stylised export base model. The impact of a conventional increase in export demand is compared to a situation in which increased competitiveness underpins the improved export performance. This analysis is then extended through the use of an interregional (Scotland–Rest of the UK) Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. In simulation, different exogenous demand and supply side disturbances are calibrated so as to generate the same long-run expansion in Scottish manufacturing exports. The subsequent specific evolutions of regional GDP and employment in both Scotland and the rest of the UK (RUK) are then tracked.
LanguageEnglish
Place of PublicationGlasgow
PublisherUniversity of Strathclyde
Pages1-47
Number of pages47
Volume10
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010

Fingerprint

Supply side
Economic activity
Scotland
Export performance
Competitiveness
Input-output analysis
Simulation
Export demand
Demand and supply
Multiplier
Computable general equilibrium model
Regional economy
Kaldor
Manufacturing

Keywords

  • export base
  • efficiency improvement
  • regional growth

Cite this

Ha, S. J., & Swales, J. K. (2010). The Export Base Model with a Supply-Side Stimulus to the Export Sector. (06 ed.) (pp. 1-47). Glasgow: University of Strathclyde.
Ha, Soo Jung ; Swales, J. Kim. / The Export Base Model with a Supply-Side Stimulus to the Export Sector. 06. ed. Glasgow : University of Strathclyde, 2010. pp. 1-47
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Ha, SJ & Swales, JK 2010 'The Export Base Model with a Supply-Side Stimulus to the Export Sector' 06 edn, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, pp. 1-47.

The Export Base Model with a Supply-Side Stimulus to the Export Sector. / Ha, Soo Jung; Swales, J. Kim.

06. ed. Glasgow : University of Strathclyde, 2010. p. 1-47.

Research output: Working paperDiscussion paper

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N2 - In the export-base model, the level of a region’s economic activity is underpinned by the performance of its export sector (Daly, 1940; Dixon and Thirlwall, 1975; Kaldor, 1970; North, 1955). This theory is now almost universally represented as a primitive version of the familiar Input-Output (IO) or Keynesian demand-driven approach, where regional output is linked to regional exports through a rather mechanistic multiplier process (Romanoff, 1974). Further, in a standard IO inter-regional framework, the expansion of output in one region always generates positive impacts on other regions. That is to say, there is always a positive spread, and no negative backwash, effect. However, these models typically embody no supply-side constraints. What is more, the stimulus to the export sector is often thought to come through supply-side improvements (North, 1955; McCombie, 1992). Whilst accepting that the development of a healthy export base is generally central to promoting the growth of the regional economy, the relationship is likely to be much more complex than is usually thought. Also whilst an increase in regional exports typically increases economic activity in the target region, the effect on other regions is less straightforward (Myrdal, 1957). In this paper we begin by using a single-region IO analysis of the operation of a stylised export base model. The impact of a conventional increase in export demand is compared to a situation in which increased competitiveness underpins the improved export performance. This analysis is then extended through the use of an interregional (Scotland–Rest of the UK) Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. In simulation, different exogenous demand and supply side disturbances are calibrated so as to generate the same long-run expansion in Scottish manufacturing exports. The subsequent specific evolutions of regional GDP and employment in both Scotland and the rest of the UK (RUK) are then tracked.

AB - In the export-base model, the level of a region’s economic activity is underpinned by the performance of its export sector (Daly, 1940; Dixon and Thirlwall, 1975; Kaldor, 1970; North, 1955). This theory is now almost universally represented as a primitive version of the familiar Input-Output (IO) or Keynesian demand-driven approach, where regional output is linked to regional exports through a rather mechanistic multiplier process (Romanoff, 1974). Further, in a standard IO inter-regional framework, the expansion of output in one region always generates positive impacts on other regions. That is to say, there is always a positive spread, and no negative backwash, effect. However, these models typically embody no supply-side constraints. What is more, the stimulus to the export sector is often thought to come through supply-side improvements (North, 1955; McCombie, 1992). Whilst accepting that the development of a healthy export base is generally central to promoting the growth of the regional economy, the relationship is likely to be much more complex than is usually thought. Also whilst an increase in regional exports typically increases economic activity in the target region, the effect on other regions is less straightforward (Myrdal, 1957). In this paper we begin by using a single-region IO analysis of the operation of a stylised export base model. The impact of a conventional increase in export demand is compared to a situation in which increased competitiveness underpins the improved export performance. This analysis is then extended through the use of an interregional (Scotland–Rest of the UK) Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. In simulation, different exogenous demand and supply side disturbances are calibrated so as to generate the same long-run expansion in Scottish manufacturing exports. The subsequent specific evolutions of regional GDP and employment in both Scotland and the rest of the UK (RUK) are then tracked.

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Ha SJ, Swales JK. The Export Base Model with a Supply-Side Stimulus to the Export Sector. 06 ed. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde. 2010 Feb, p. 1-47.