The energy and indoor environmental performance of Egyptian offices: parameter analysis and future policy

Aly M. Elharidi, Paul G. Tuohy, Mohamed A. Teamah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
120 Downloads (Pure)


Buildings are a significant contributor to the rapidly increasing electricity demand in Egypt which is straining the existing supply network causing economic and social impacts. There are current initiatives aimed at improved building performance including adoption of international standards. The performance of existing Egyptian buildings is not well understood making the impact of these international standards uncertain. This paper provides insight into performance of current Egyptian office buildings through a multi-building energy survey and a detailed case study. The most common office type in the survey has natural ventilation and local cooling. A process to capture observed performance in a representative model and input parameter set is presented. The model is used to investigate performance impacts of parameters including: location, weather, building envelope, intensity of occupancy, behaviour, and installed systems including the HVAC strategy. HVAC strategy was identified as the most significant factor. Typical Egyptian offices with natural ventilation and local cooling systems under personal control have electricity demand less than 50% of centrally serviced buildings. System efficiencies (HVAC, lights, equipment) and occupant behaviour (e.g. use of systems, temperatures) were also identified as significant factors, each with potential of around 30% saving compared to current typical offices. Possible policy measures to promote energy efficient systems and energy conscious behaviour are proposed which together can reduce the energy demand of typical offices by 50%. Trade-offs between energy use and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages34
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Early online date10 Oct 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 10 Oct 2017


  • buildings
  • energy performance
  • performance gap
  • uncertainty
  • stock modelling
  • LEED
  • air conditioning
  • Egypt
  • office buildings
  • comfort
  • IEQ


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