High-order accurate numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of wavy leading edges (WLEs) on aerofoil–gust interaction (AGI) noise. The present study is based on periodic velocity disturbances predominantly in streamwise and vertical directions that are mainly responsible for the surface pressure fluctuation of an aerofoil. In general, the present results show that WLEs lead to reduced AGI noise. It is found that the ratio of the wavy leading-edge peak-to-peak amplitude (LEA) to the longitudinal wavelength of the incident gust (λg) is the most important factor for the reduction of AGI noise. It is observed that there exists a tendency that the reduction of AGI noise increases with LEA/λg and the noise reduction is significant for LEA/λg≥0.3LEA. The present results also suggest that any two different cases with the same LEA/λg lead to a strong similarity in their profiles of noise reduction relative to the straight leading-edge case. The wavelength of wavy leading edges (LEW), however, shows minor influence on the reduction of AGI noise under the present gust profiles used. Nevertheless, the present results show that a meaningful improvement in noise reduction may be achieved when 1.0≤LEW/λg≤1.51. In addition, it is found that the beneficial effects of WLEs are maintained for various flow incidence angles and aerofoil thicknesses. Also, the WLEs remain effective for gust profiles containing multiple frequency components. It is discovered in this paper that WLEs result in incoherent response time to the incident gust across the span, which results in a decreased level of surface pressure fluctuations, hence a reduced level of AGI noise.
- computational aeroacoustics
Lau, A. S. H., Haeri, S., & Kim, J. W. (2013). The effect of wavy leading edges on aerofoil–gust interaction noise. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 332(24), 6234-6253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2013.06.031