This in vitro study focused on the investigation of the effect of current waveform on simultaneous glucose and lactate extraction by reverse iontophoresis. Experiments were performed using diffusion cells. An iontophoretic current (0.3 mA cm−2) at four different current waveforms (a combination of 0-, 5-, 10- and 15-s pulse intervals and 15-min polarity reversal intervals) were applied for 90 min via Ag/AgCl electrodes. Glucose and lactate extraction were quantified by spectrometric analysis. The result suggests that extraction of glucose and lactate by pulsed bipolar current are pulse-frequent dependent and pulsed bipolar current at a particular pulse-frequent is found to be more effective on glucose and lactate extraction than bipolar current.
- reverse iontophoresis
- pulsed bipolar current waveform