The determinants of standing and seated football attendances: evidence from three Scottish league clubs

R. A. Smart, John A. Goddard, James Love (Editor)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the demand for Scottish Premier League football using regression analysis, differentiating between
the determinants of standing and seated attendances. Previous studies of the determinants of football attendance (Bird, 1982; Jennett, 1984; Cairns, 1983,
1987; Peel and Thomas, 1988) have concentrated exclusively on the determinants of aggregate attendance. Such studies therefore do not allow for the fact that the majority of football clubs which provide a choice between seated or standing accommodation effectively supply two quite distinct 'products'. These products differ in terms of both their price and their characteristics (for example, the standard of comfort, the quality of the view, the degree of protection from the weather, and the type of match atmosphere experienced in each). They are also likely to appeal to different categories of supporter (for example by age, sex, or socio-economic background, with young working class males generally more likely to stand on the terraces, and spectators in other groups more likely to choose seats). The need to identify separate demand functions for different types of viewing accommodation is of particular importance given the likelihood that the trend towards the introduction of all-seater stadia by major clubs will gather pace during the 1990s.
LanguageEnglish
Pages61-64
Number of pages5
JournalQuarterly Economic Commentary
Volume16
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1991

Fingerprint

Clubs
Attendance
Football
Accommodation
Socio-economics
Weather
Spectator
Stadium
Regression analysis
Seat
Demand function
Atmosphere
Working class

Keywords

  • Scottish Premier League
  • football
  • soccer
  • football attendances
  • economics of sport

Cite this

@article{0927d625931f4a5db38489ff452c7fb0,
title = "The determinants of standing and seated football attendances: evidence from three Scottish league clubs",
abstract = "The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the demand for Scottish Premier League football using regression analysis, differentiating betweenthe determinants of standing and seated attendances. Previous studies of the determinants of football attendance (Bird, 1982; Jennett, 1984; Cairns, 1983,1987; Peel and Thomas, 1988) have concentrated exclusively on the determinants of aggregate attendance. Such studies therefore do not allow for the fact that the majority of football clubs which provide a choice between seated or standing accommodation effectively supply two quite distinct 'products'. These products differ in terms of both their price and their characteristics (for example, the standard of comfort, the quality of the view, the degree of protection from the weather, and the type of match atmosphere experienced in each). They are also likely to appeal to different categories of supporter (for example by age, sex, or socio-economic background, with young working class males generally more likely to stand on the terraces, and spectators in other groups more likely to choose seats). The need to identify separate demand functions for different types of viewing accommodation is of particular importance given the likelihood that the trend towards the introduction of all-seater stadia by major clubs will gather pace during the 1990s.",
keywords = "Scottish Premier League, football, soccer, football attendances, economics of sport",
author = "Smart, {R. A.} and Goddard, {John A.} and James Love",
year = "1991",
month = "6",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
pages = "61--64",
journal = "Fraser of Allander Economic Commentary",
issn = "2046-5378",
publisher = "University of Strathclyde",
number = "4",

}

The determinants of standing and seated football attendances : evidence from three Scottish league clubs. / Smart, R. A.; Goddard, John A.; Love, James (Editor).

In: Quarterly Economic Commentary, Vol. 16, No. 4, 06.1991, p. 61-64.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The determinants of standing and seated football attendances

T2 - Fraser of Allander Economic Commentary

AU - Smart, R. A.

AU - Goddard, John A.

A2 - Love, James

PY - 1991/6

Y1 - 1991/6

N2 - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the demand for Scottish Premier League football using regression analysis, differentiating betweenthe determinants of standing and seated attendances. Previous studies of the determinants of football attendance (Bird, 1982; Jennett, 1984; Cairns, 1983,1987; Peel and Thomas, 1988) have concentrated exclusively on the determinants of aggregate attendance. Such studies therefore do not allow for the fact that the majority of football clubs which provide a choice between seated or standing accommodation effectively supply two quite distinct 'products'. These products differ in terms of both their price and their characteristics (for example, the standard of comfort, the quality of the view, the degree of protection from the weather, and the type of match atmosphere experienced in each). They are also likely to appeal to different categories of supporter (for example by age, sex, or socio-economic background, with young working class males generally more likely to stand on the terraces, and spectators in other groups more likely to choose seats). The need to identify separate demand functions for different types of viewing accommodation is of particular importance given the likelihood that the trend towards the introduction of all-seater stadia by major clubs will gather pace during the 1990s.

AB - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the demand for Scottish Premier League football using regression analysis, differentiating betweenthe determinants of standing and seated attendances. Previous studies of the determinants of football attendance (Bird, 1982; Jennett, 1984; Cairns, 1983,1987; Peel and Thomas, 1988) have concentrated exclusively on the determinants of aggregate attendance. Such studies therefore do not allow for the fact that the majority of football clubs which provide a choice between seated or standing accommodation effectively supply two quite distinct 'products'. These products differ in terms of both their price and their characteristics (for example, the standard of comfort, the quality of the view, the degree of protection from the weather, and the type of match atmosphere experienced in each). They are also likely to appeal to different categories of supporter (for example by age, sex, or socio-economic background, with young working class males generally more likely to stand on the terraces, and spectators in other groups more likely to choose seats). The need to identify separate demand functions for different types of viewing accommodation is of particular importance given the likelihood that the trend towards the introduction of all-seater stadia by major clubs will gather pace during the 1990s.

KW - Scottish Premier League

KW - football

KW - soccer

KW - football attendances

KW - economics of sport

UR - http://www.strath.ac.uk/frasercommentary/

UR - http://www.strath.ac.uk/fraser/

M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 61

EP - 64

JO - Fraser of Allander Economic Commentary

JF - Fraser of Allander Economic Commentary

SN - 2046-5378

IS - 4

ER -