The Collateral Consequences of Criminal Records

E. Christensen, C. Jardine, A. Kennedy, K. Mabon, E. Taylor, B. Weaver

Research output: Working paperDiscussion paper

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Whether due to formal legal restrictions, or social stigma and associated forms of discrimination, the 'mark of a criminal record' (Pager, 20031) has significant consequences for people with convictions (e.g., Henley, 2018 a2, b3; Miller, 20214). The many and varied impacts and effects of criminal records has been referred to as an invisible and pervasive punishment, and a collateral consequence of contact with the justice system (Travis, 20025). These enduring consequences affect a significant proportion of the population across the U.K. A report by McGuinness et al., (20136) estimated that 'at least one third of the adult male population and nearly one in ten of the adult female population [of Scotland] is likely to have a criminal record'. Similarly, Freedom of Information requests have revealed that there are over 11.8 million people with a criminal record, equating to one in 6 people.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationGlasgow
PublisherUniversity of Strathclyde
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 14 May 2021


  • discrimination
  • criminal records
  • criminal convictions
  • offender rehabilitation


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