Whether due to formal legal restrictions, or social stigma and associated forms of discrimination, the 'mark of a criminal record' (Pager, 20031) has significant consequences for people with convictions (e.g., Henley, 2018 a2, b3; Miller, 20214). The many and varied impacts and effects of criminal records has been referred to as an invisible and pervasive punishment, and a collateral consequence of contact with the justice system (Travis, 20025). These enduring consequences affect a significant proportion of the population across the U.K. A report by McGuinness et al., (20136) estimated that 'at least one third of the adult male population and nearly one in ten of the adult female population [of Scotland] is likely to have a criminal record'. Similarly, Freedom of Information requests have revealed that there are over 11.8 million people with a criminal record, equating to one in 6 people.
|Place of Publication||Glasgow|
|Publisher||University of Strathclyde|
|Number of pages||6|
|Publication status||Published - 14 May 2021|
- criminal records
- criminal convictions
- offender rehabilitation